+1 (502) 904-2126   One Westbrook Corporate Center, Suite 300, Westchester, IL 60154, USA   Site Map Crossmark Policy
ISSN: 2574 -1241

Impact Factor : 0.548


Autism Spectrum Disorder (An Update)

Review Article

Article Title: Autism Spectrum Disorder (An Update)

Author: Michael Mikhail*, Lara Kanber Agha, Kristina Hobby, Lourdes Illa-Sanchez and Ashraf Mikhail

Published Date: May 15, 2024

DOI: 10.26717/BJSTR.2024.56.008878


Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that typically manifests in early childhood as impaired social communication and restricted, repetitive behaviors which falls as a spectrum from mild to severe. In the past 5 decades, ASD has gone from a narrowly defined, rare disorder of childhood onset to a wellresearched, life-long condition which is relatively common and heterogeneous .The prevalence of ASD has been increasing in the United States over the last two decades, which is most likely related to change in diagnostic criteria, increased public awareness , and improved screening. The prognosis of ASD today is much brighter than it was in the past and more people with the condition are able to speak, read and live independently in the community. Early diagnosis is very important as early intensive behavioral interventions have shown to improve functional outcomes and quality of life. Comprehensive, multidisciplinary evaluation is needed for the diagnosis of ASD which should include the use of standardized measures as the Autism Diagnostic Interview- Revised and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-second edition. High rate of medical and psychiatric comorbidity have seen in individuals with ASD including epilepsy, depression, anxiety, and sleep difficulties. Early and intensive behavior interventions have shown to be beneficial in improving social communication, language and play. Pharmacological treatment is indicated for psychiatric comorbidity such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, emotional dysregulation, irritability and aggression.