*Corresponding author:Joanna Stachura, Department of Ophthalmology Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Torun, Poland
Received: June 22, 2018; Published: July 06, 2018
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Retinal artery occlusion (RAO) is uncommon before the age of 40 years. Bilateral RAO at young age are extremely rare. The etiology of RAO is usually associated with atherosclerotic risk factors and the presence of intravascular or intracardiac embolic material. In young adults, RAO may be manifestation of heart pathologies or inherited or acquired thrombophilia. We discuss characteristics, diagnostics and important clinical implications basing on the case of a previously healthy, non-smoking, non-hormonal therapy, a 33-year-old female with bilateral non-simultaneous RAO.
Keywords: Retinal Artery Occlusion; Paradoxical Embolism
Abbrevations: RAO: Retinal Artery Occlusion; BRAO: Branch Retinal Artery Occlusion; CRAO: Central Retinal Artery Occlusion; OCT: Optical Coherence Tomography; APTT: Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time; INR: International Normalized Ratio; ATIII: Antithrombin III; TTE: Transthoracic Echocardiography; TEE: Transesophageal Echocardiography; TCD: Transcranial Doppler; MTHFR: Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase; LA: Lupus Anticoagulant; aCL: Anti-Cardiolipin Antibodies; aB2GPI: Anti-Beta-2 Glycoprotein I Antibodies; ANA: Anti-Nuclear Antibody; ANCA: Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibodies; ESR: Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate; CRP: C-Reactive Protein; AFP: Alpha-Fetoprotein; CEA: Carcinoembryonic Antigen; B-HCG: beta-Human Chorionic Gonadotropin; CA 19-9: Cancer Antigen 19-9; ECG: Electrocardiography; TSH: Thyroid Stimulating Hormone; FT3: Free Triiodothyronine; FT4: Free Thyroxine; AST: Aspartate Aminotransferase; ALT: Alanine Aminotransferase; MRI: Magnetic Resonance Imaging; PFO: Patent Foramen Ovale