*Corresponding author:Kleber Campos Miranda-Filho, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Escola de Veterinária, Departamento de Zootecnia, Laboratório de Aquacultura - LAQUA, Av. Antônio Carlos, 6627, CEP 31270-901, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil
Received: February 28, 2018; Published: March 16, 2018
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The objective of the present study was to evaluate the presence of pesticides in different matrices, such as: water, fish, soil and feed, during rainbow trout production in a raceway system. During the rainy and dry periods (2014 and 2015), the parameters temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen (OD) and alkalinity were also evaluated. The water matrix residues were extracted by the Luke method and fish, soil and feed matrices were extracted by the modified QuEChERS method. The extracts were evaluated by multi-residue HPLC-MS / MS analysis with limit of detection - LOD (1 ppb) and limit of quantification - LOQ (10 ppb). For the water matrix, residues of organophosphates, carbamates, pyrethroids, anilinopyrimidines, strobirulins and alkyl sulfite were detected in the trout cultures. However, only organ phosphorus insecticides (chlorpyrifos and dichlorvos) were quantified. In trout farm A was detected and quantified chlorpyrifos at 0.019 mg/L point A1 and dichlorvos at the concentrations of 0.136 mg/L point A1 (tributary) and 0.0465 mg/L point A6 (effluent).
In trout farm B, dichlorvos were quantified at 0.0209 mg/L point B1 (tributary) and 0.0578 mg/L point B9 (tributary). All concentrations of pesticides described were above the Maximum Residue Limit (MRL) recommended by the European Union. For soil and feed matrices there was no detection of pesticide residues for the trout farms. For the fish matrix there was no detection of residues in trout farm A, but there was detection (within the limit of the equipment) of trout farm B in the tissues: gills, liver and kidney. The physicochemical variables evaluated may have provided the pesticides hydrolysis and the rainy season may have influenced the greater amount of residues in the water, but within the limits of detection of the equipment. However, dry period may have influenced the concentration of chlorpyrifos and dichlorvos. The identification of residues in the rainbow trout tissues in trout farm B in October suggests that further studies should be carried out to verify the possibility of bioconcentration in the tissues due to the different classes of pesticides that can be found in the aquatic environment.
Keywords: Water quality; Waste; Raceway; Rainbow trout
Abbreviations: OD: Dissolved Oxygen; MEL: Maximum Residue Limit; PSA: Primary-Secondary Amine Sorbent; ESI: Electro-Spray Ionization; ANOVA: Analysis of Variance; LOD: Limit of Detection; MRL: Maximum Residue Limit; EU: European Union; ALP: Alkaline Phosphatase; ACP: Acid Phosphate