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Research ArticleOpen Access

The Relationship of Hypertension and Related Cardiovascular Risk Factors to Executive Functioning in Older Mexican Americans

Volume 7 - Issue 2

Raul M Vintimilla*, James R Hall, Leigh A Johnson and Sid EO Bryant

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    • Department of Pharmacology & Neuroscience, University of North Texas Health Science Center, USA

    *Corresponding author: Raul Vintimilla, Department of Pharmacology and Neuroscience, University of North Texas Health Science Center, 3500 Camp Bowie Blvd., Fort Worth, Texas 76107

Received: July 12, 2018;   Published: July 23, 2018

DOI: 10.26717/BJSTR.2018.07.001462

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Objective: Hypertension is a modifiable multifactorial risk factor that has been associated with cognitive impairment. The current study investigated the relationship between blood pressure levels and executive function in older Mexican Americans.

Methods: Data from 349 cognitively normal participants from the Health and Aging Brain Study among Latino Elders were analyzed to compare executive function status in those with and without a diagnosis of hypertension. Diagnosis of hypertension were based in self-report, medication status, and examination results. Executive function was assessed with Trails B education adjusted scale scores. Diabetes, dyslipidemia, and abdominal obesity were also entered in the models with age as a covariate.

Results: Both Males and females with a diagnosis of hypertension had significantly worse performance on Trails B. None of the other cardiovascular disease risk were significant. For males, only diagnosis of hypertension significantly predicted Trails B scores (B = -2.41, 95% CI [-4.33 - -0.49], p = 0.01). For females, diagnosis of hypertension (B = -0.95, 95% CI [-1.93 – 0.03], p = 0.05), and dyslipidemia (B = -1.10, 95% CI [-2.17 - -0.03], p = 0.04) predicted Trails B scores.

Conclusion: Even though longitudinal research is needed to identify the long-term effect of blood pressure levels on cognition, our findings suggest a relationship between diagnosis of hypertension and executive function in both male and female Mexican Americans. This suggests control of blood pressure may be an essential factor in reducing cognitive decline.

Keywords: Cognition; Executive Function; Hypertension; Cardiovascular Risk Factors; Dyslipidemia; Alzheimer’s Disease; Vascular Dementia; Diabetes Mellitus; Pathologies; Neuropsychological

Abstract | Introduction | Methods | Results | Disclosure | Acknowledgment | References |