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Evolution and Epidemiology of Antimicrobial Resistance: Staphylococcus aureus

Volume 1 - Issue 5

Sunil Pandey, Laina Sallam and Nivedita Pareek

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    • Department of Biological sciences, Eastern Illinois University, USA

    *Corresponding author: Sunil Pandey, Department of Biological sciences, Eastern Illinois University, Charleston, USA

Received: October 06, 2017;   Published: October 17, 2017

DOI: 10.26717/BJSTR.2017.01.000446

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Staphylococcus aureus is a potentially pathogenic bacterium that causes a wide range of diseases. These are causing different infections and resistance mechanism due to of its wide virulence factors. The increase in the resistance of this virulent pathogen to antibiotic, day by day increases as a nosocomial infection is a major health concern. The main resistance phenotype associated with the S. aureus in hospital is methicillin resistance followed by vancomycin resistance. Resistance to methicillin and other b-lactam antibiotics is produced by the mecA gene, which is located on a portable genetic element, the Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec (SCCmec). Center for disease control and prevention (CDC) approximates 80,461 hostile Methicillin resistance staphylococcal (MRSA) infections and 11,285 associated deaths occurred in 2011.

Methicillin resistance in hospital acquired infections in S. aureus isolates has been increasing intensely in United States and occurring resistance to other antibacterial compounds. However, the role of evolutionary change in the pathogen throughout the development from bearing to disease is not completely understood. So, for this high throughout genome sequencing project need to be done to identify the genotypic character. To reduce these resistances more effective infection control, developing the new and improved antibiotic, developing vaccines, monitoring the trends in resistance, promoting interventions, conducting research are crucial. This review labels the latest molecular evolution of MRSA, different methods used to investigate the epidemiology, different risk factor associated with it and the structure of gene.

Keywords: MRSA; Evolution; Review; Staphylococcus aureus

Abbreviations: SCCmec: Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome Mec; CDC: Center for Disease Control; MRSA: Methicillin resistance staphylococcal; VRSA: Vancomycin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus; PBP: Penicillin-Binding Protein; UPGMA: Unweighted Pair-Group Matching Analysis; MLST : Multilocus Sequence Typing; SCVs: Small Colony Variants

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