*Corresponding author:Erick VG Komba, Senior lecturer, Department of Veterinary Medicine and Public Health, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Sokoine University of Agriculture, P.O. Box 3021, Morogoro, Tanzania
Received: September 12, 2017; Published: October 05, 2017
To view the Full Article Peer-reviewed Article PDF
Purpose: Campylobacter mediated diarrhoea is a leading cause of gastroenteritis worldwide. The organisms colonize the gastrointestinal tract of different animal species without causing disease symptoms. Humans acquire infections through contact with or consumption of contaminated meat especially raw/undercooked poultry meat. The rapid emergence of antibiotic-resistant Campylobacter strains heightens the public health concern of the organisms. The aim of this review was to summarise information on the epidemiology and antibiogram of Campylobacter in humans and animals in East African countries.
Method: A structured literature search of PUBMED and Science Direct electronic databases.
Results: Forty reports on thermophilic Campylobacter were identified in four of the five East African countries in the following order; Kenya (16), Tanzania (17), Uganda (4) and Rwanda (3). No study was found to report thermophilic Campylobacter infections in either humans or animals in Burundi. Studies on animals reported colonization of both domestic and wild species. Of the studies that described Campylobacter infections in humans, both symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects were reported to be infected; with higher prevalence in subjects younger than five years old. Among isolates, some demonstrated antimicrobial resistance.
Conclusion: Available information for both human and animal Campylobacteriosis in the region is however sparse thus calling for more research to better understand the epidemiology of infections caused by the organism including clonal dependence and independence of human and animal derived isolates. This understanding will help researchers and health program developers in designing and implementing effective control strategies. Since the organism is zoonotic its control strategies should adopt the “One Health” approach involving collaborative efforts from veterinary and human medicine.
Keywords : Adults; Children; Campylobacter; Chickens; Diarrhoea; Food animals; Wild animals
Abbreviations : CEB: Campylobacter Enrichment Broth; CCDA: Charcoal Cefaperazone Deoxycholate Agar; PCR: Polymerase Chain Reaction; MALDI-TOF: Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time of Flight