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Research ArticleOpen Access

Female Breast Cancer: Socio-Demographic, Lifestyle, and Clinical Risk Factors - A Hospital-Based Study in Two Egyptian Governorates

Volume 1 - Issue 4

Essam A El-Moselhy1*, Gamal G Elshemy2, Ahmed A Sultan2 and Mohammed A Nafea2

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    • 1Department of Community Medicine, Al-Azhazr University, Egypt
    • 2Department of General Surgery, Al-Azhazr University, Egypt

    *Corresponding author: El-Moselhy EA, Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Egypt

Received: August 07, 2017;   Published: September 06, 2017

DOI: 10.26717/BJSTR.2017.01.000328

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Background: Breast cancer in is the commonest and number one cancer among females in Egypt. Female breast cancer (FBC) has many preventable risk factors.

Aim: To determine the socio-demographic, lifestyle, and clinical risk factors of FBC among Egyptian patients.

Patients and Methods: This study was conducted on sample of 400 FBC patients. The patients were recruited from two hospitals of Al- Azhar University in Cairo and Assiut governorates. A case-control study design was used; the patients and controls were subjected for interview for history taking. Odds ratio was used to detect the risk factors.

Results: Significant socio-demographic risk factors were high social, educational, and occupational levels (OR=1.92, 1.69, 1.95; respectively). Significant gynecological risk factors were age at menarche <13, menopause ≥50, and menstrual period ≥40 year (OR=1.49, 1.62, 2.09; respectively). Significant reproductive risk factors were never married, first full term pregnancy at age ≥35, and no breast-feeding (OR=2.7, 2.97, 2.64; respectively). Family history of FBC, the maternal/paternal grandmother and the aunts, sister, and mother were significant risk factors (OR=5.23, 6.68, 5.1, 4.45; respectively). Significant clinical risk factors were history of benign breast disease, heights ≥160 cm, and exposure to environmental factors (OR=5.14, 1.86, 4.94; respectively). Significant lifestyle risk factors were ever smoked, alcohol use, and nonphysically active woman (OR=2.98, 3.51, 1.78; respectively). Significant dietary risk factors were high consumption of fats and low consumption of fresh fruits/vegetables (OR=2.48, 1.73; respectively). Significant health care behavior risk factor was no modification of lifestyle risk factors (OR=2.14).

Conclusions: Many of FBC risk factors are modifiable and preventable; identification of these factors may lead to improve preventive strategies. We recommend to conducted more studies to understand the true epidemiology of FBC. There is need for increase awareness of the disease, strength the national FBC screening program, and integration of the FBC these services into the health facilities that women use.

Keywords: B. cinerea; Chlorophyll fluorescence Myzus persicae; Rate of photosynthesis; Systemic infection

Abbreviations: FBC: Female Breast Cancer; BIM: Body Mass Index; SPSS: Statistical Package For Social Sciences; SD: Standard Deviation; OR: Odds Ratio; CI: Confidence Interval; ECL: Exact Confidence Limits

Abstract| Introduction| Aims of the Study| Results| Discussion| Conclusions and Recommendations| Acknowledgement| References|