+1 (502) 904-2126   One Westbrook Corporate Center, Suite 300, Westchester, IL 60154, USA   Site Map
ISSN: 2574 -1241

Impact Factor : 0.548

  Submit Manuscript

Review ArticleOpen Access

Teaching and Research Necessary Educational Process in the Academic Units of Health Sciences, UAZ Volume 55- Issue 2

Jesús Rivas Gutiérrez*, Daniela del Carmen Zamarrón Gracia, María del Carmen Gracia Cortés and José Ricardo Gómez Bañuelos

  • Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas, México

Received: February 07, 2024;   Published: February 21, 2024

*Corresponding author: Jesús Rivas Gutiérrez, Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas, México

DOI: 10.26717/BJSTR.2024.55.008667

Abstract PDF


The demands of the current times that education faces in the Area of Health Sciences of the Autonomous University of Zacatecas, entail the need to make and apply a new rethinking in the way in which the function of training is “looked at and understood.” healthcare professionals. In this sense, the approach to transforming the educational process is not new since it dates back to the 70’s when the innovative strategy of linking teaching with research was proposed to enhance the teaching function and increase the level of knowledge, knowledge and experiences of students and graduates. Generating with this new educational conception new health professionals with regard to their disciplinary knowledge, also aims to remodel the image and stereotyped model of what this new professional should be and how to be at work, therefore implicitly and explicitly involving the idea of changing the culture and awareness of the main actors in the teaching-learning process.

Keywords: Education; Linkage; Teaching-Research


Along with the new economic, political, social, health and even war situations that the new millennium has brought, the educational field has had to rethink again the process and work that teachers carry out with their students in the classrooms. class. In particular, the educational event carried out in the Academic Units of Health Sciences of the Autonomous University of Zacatecas (ACS/UAZ) has been or is the one that mostly requires rethinking or readjustments in relation to educational policies and The purposes pursued are, in general terms, to train competent and competitive health professional graduates, who are capable of meeting the demands and needs of the population that requests their services, in addition to being part of the development of the state and the country. In this sense, the ACS/ UAZ in general is an educational field that, due to its long-standing traditional, Napoleonic and vicarious educational tradition, requires a reconceptualization in terms of what to teach and how to teach by the teacher to form students with the ability to creativity, critical perception, the virtue of analyzing and synthesizing, having rigor, discipline, objectivity and responsibility in what they undertake, perseverance, relevance and other qualities and skills, in addition to generating in them a taste for exploration, inquiry, discovery and truth (Porlán Ariza R [1]).

For this, it is essential to have teachers with a new profile, who are capable of teaching but at the same time learning from their students, who are interested in understanding and at the same time understand what they are doing, how they are doing it and why they are doing their pedagogical work. In short, he must be a teacher-researcher who investigates why what he teaches his students is captured and understood or just the opposite, at the same time that he continually rethinks changes in his daily work inside his classroom. , who assumes himself as a fundamental mediator between what he knows, masters and wants to teach (theory) and the educational practice he carries out (learning), therefore, the characteristics and function that his work gives him entails a regulatory and at the same time transformative activity. of the initiatives and internal and external factors that in one way or another affect the dynamics of the classrooms. This intervention must be carried out through a double process, on the one hand, through its cognitive dimension which functions as a sieve based on its beliefs, which allows it to achieve, from its own knowledge and knowledge, decipher and evaluate those variables that receive so much. him as his students for the benefit or detriment of the process, on the other hand, knowing how to conduct himself in his class as a practitioner, who is capable of visualizing himself to be able to make decisions about his specific behavior when the results he is obtaining are not what he expected. expected and can make modifications to reorient the process (Solís Muñoz JB [2]).

This double procedure, although influenced by your system of beliefs and opinions, does not adapt mechanically and automatically, since it is the result of the influence of various variables that interact in the specific context of teaching-learning, all in a process that is It largely escapes their conscious control, which is why the teacher, in his capacity as mediator, must be able to actively and continuously investigate what is happening in the classroom; This requires, in addition to being a disciplinary professional within the health area, being by conviction an explorer of their professional, pedagogical and didactic knowledge schemes and analyzing their relationship with their performance in the classroom, in the same way, recognizing their deficiencies and limitations and have the availability to make commitments to correct them. Currently, the role played by the majority of teachers in classes within the ACS/UAZ field is apparently drawn as that of a passive and authoritarian teacher who mechanically applies the contents that he is responsible for teaching, contrary to the current demands that the The teacher must be an active, versatile and innovative agent in the development of his disciplinary field, a modeler of the content he teaches and the codes and links that structure these contents, thereby conditioning the entire range of learning of his students, thinking the work and pedagogical process as an experimentation, as an inquiry, so that one can constantly question oneself about the meaning and nature of one’s educational practice, for this it is necessary that three conditions be met: Wanting, Knowing and Power (Santos Guerra MA [3]).

Want understood as the will and need to be able to make decisions within the range of your autonomy as a teacher; Knowing how the ability and wisdom to carry out explorations and investigations that lead to discovery as the basis of the teaching process is not enough to want; and Power in the sense of possessing the academic, pedagogical and administrative capabilities and conditions that allow them to make clear, decisive and well-founded decisions to apply theoretically and practically what they could do in their work to improve. If it is recognized and understood that the creation of knowledge is hard, difficult and complicated work, learning to research is an even more critical, arduous and delicate process for both the teacher and the student, which is why it is possible to establish within a classroom a teaching-research link in the ACS/UAZ at the time of the educational process urgently requires deep and significant curricular changes that allow its viability; There are several levels of concreteness at which these transformations should be proposed or rethought, at the level of social structures, the institutional level, organizational functioning and, most importantly, the level of teachers, because if you do not have a good teacher capable, trained and updated to establish a true teaching-research link, it is impossible to think that it will create professional graduates for this new century, with the skills and competencies that allow them to face and solve the various health and social problems successfully (or contribute to that solution) (Verónica R Indacochea González, et al. [4]).

On the other hand, the directions in which the required school, classroom and academic changes should point are in the context of the production of knowledge and knowledge, in the administrative, organizational and active exercise of democracy, the latter is related to morality and civic respect and the competent and effective provision of graduates in the numerous professional and social services; Some others refer to the development of a new culture as well as the liberation and emancipation of the new health professionals from the old stereotyped models within each disciplinary field within the area of health. It is clear that none of the substantive functions carried out by higher education (teaching, research, extension and linkage) have the same value and place within the various higher education institutions, but in particular at ACS/UAZ, linked teaching Research is considered a fundamental duo to subsequently achieve an extension and connection with the successful, competitive and well-valued and appreciated society, although over time this connection has been given different meanings, conceptions and values, which within of their own inertia they mix the original conception of each of the functions performed by higher education. Research and teaching acquire meaning as specific expressions of the forms of production and dissemination of knowledge in these educational institutions, but in recent years and reflected in the educational policies internal and external to the institution, there is an urgent need to link them holistically. to enhance their reason for being and function, although it has been barely analyzed from a socio-educational point of view.

Unfortunately, among the university teaching community and also among the respective educational authorities, the little importance they give to the great importance and need to move day by day towards this link (teaching-research), has delayed this fundamental task of bringing it to the level of the discussion and therefore, has caused little reflection on the matter, a situation that has resulted in a dimension and vision that conditions and limits its current situation. The few statements raised so far, which justify and defend its necessity, have so far only been good intentions within the political-educational actions of the authorities, since no actions are required to materialize these formulations nor are the necessary conditions established to its realization, generally the link is only found or mentioned in political statements and at specific times; Therefore, it is clear that this condition has more of a historical and political character than an academic one and for this reason part of the work to come and that must be carried out is the presentation of structural and operational proposals that favor the realization and effectiveness of this interrelation. within the ACS/UAZ.

Differentiation between Teacher and Researcher

To understand and assess the environment of the need to transition university teaching practice to a new one based on a real and close link between teaching and research to further enhance the educational process, it is necessary to make, even briefly, some explanations that clarify what is being talked about. Although it is recognized that there are great and subtle differences, it is also clear that they have and share similarities and approaches, for example, in a university educational institution both partially or totally share work material, resources, infrastructure, knowledge, knowledge and yet in it and therefore, they differ in schedules, actions, attitudes, values, interest, skills; While the teacher has under his responsibility and control a group of students, which can be small or large, with whom he must try to communicate homogeneously under different situations and conditions, the researcher does so in an interaction with only one or a very small group of his peers. The teacher must possess and display eloquence, argumentation, clarity, objectivity and patience to lead his students to the understanding of a pre-established approach or topic (curriculum-study plan), while the researcher often does not dialogue for initiative and instead manifests many episodes of silence and only focuses on presenting his work, although in many moments of silence it is understood or rather believed that he is silent because he is in a moment and process of reflection on what is presented or what they could have asked him.

Generally, the teacher must gather strength, will and disposition to understand, plan and explain to his students processes, themes and content previously established in the study plan, the researcher establishes his times, rhythms, spaces and conditions to share his findings and results; For this reason, it is necessary for the teacher to have an adequate verbal culture, with a wide vocabulary of teaching jargon, on the other hand, the researcher shows off his ability to express himself in writing, within a dialogue (which is often a monologue) made up of meanings and codes specific to the field of research (Herrera González JD [5]).We could continue pointing out some other points in this regard, but nevertheless the important thing in this work is to point out that despite these and other differences there are shared spaces, contexts, knowledge and knowledge, such as the demand for a certain level of rigor requirements. Scientificity, foundation in what they say and do, in the same way the need to search, present and demonstrate the truth of what is said as part of the need they have to demonstrate their pedagogical, didactic, academic and scientific authority, therefore which, both have to make a great and unavoidable effort of systematization, organization and discipline that accompany their productive tasks, under penalty of putting their work, credibility and even their privileges at risk.

Teaching Research Link

Any didactic model that aims to explain and direct the educational process must consider, as an essential element of its structure, the professional skills that the teacher must have; Defining a proposal for linking teaching-research implies, from the outset, characterizing the specific tasks of the teacher that make it viable, so that he maintains the highest degree of coherence between the psychological, sociological and specifically didactic principles that define and defend said model. In that sense, the construction of the teacher as a facilitator of his students’ learning and at the same time as a researcher of classroom processes, promoting certain essential aspects such as, for example, the constructive conception of learning, the identification and importance of representations and conceptual errors in the construction of knowledge, the role of communication in the classroom, the influence of ecological and social exchanges in learning processes and the development of attitudes, behaviors and values typical of scientific and critical thinking in the student. The reflection on the linkage proposal at the time should discuss the relevance and viability of including among the professional tasks of the teacher as a researcher the situations in which he or she is immersed as a teacher. The idea of incorporating research into the teacher’s work is not new, it dates back to the 70’s when it began to be given importance from theory and practice (Furio and Gil, 1984) and Stenhouse is one of the first theorists. in raising it (1981).

This important proposal is proposed from the vision of applying new curricular approaches in the ACS/UAZ where a teacher model is promoted that investigates in the classroom to solve specific problems and at the same time reflect, theorize and progressively reconstruct their teaching and at the same time contents it teaches. One of the problems of greatest interest for analysis is the way to introduce teachers to the behaviors, attitudes and methodologies of research in the classroom; Below are some general ideas and strategies to carry out the teaching-research activity. Obtain more rational general information from the class and not just the mere intuitive information from the teacher, for this it is necessary to keep a class diary. Evaluate in an investigative manner one or several aspects related to the programming that the teacher does, to do so sporadically apply some questionnaires to the students about content situations of interest to the students and apply observation guides. Analyze and reflect on specific problems in a timely manner, to do this apply some questionnaires and carry out a sociogram with the students. Occasionally invite a professional to teach a topic, who together with the teacher forms a team to address and learn about the difficulties encountered in the group during classes and outside of them, for this the teacher must have his diary, some observations and analysis. of the questionnaire and observation guides and, together with the professional’s vision, perform triangulations between the information collected (López de Parra L [6]).


Reflecting on the future of society’s health and disease problems and needs in this not-so-new 21st century poses enormous difficulties due to the increasingly growing complexity of contexts, situations, factors and variables that condition them increasingly. promptness and breadth. In the general educational context and in particular in that of ACS/UAZ there has been a strong tendency for a long time to concentrate the entire educational present, in the here and now, without contextualizing the process in the dimension of globalization and multiculturalism, This trait or characteristic has a significant impact on the teaching-learning process, on the one hand it responds successfully to the traditional, Napoleonic and vicarious training model of the students, and on the other hand it forgets in many ways that education must evolve progressively and in parallel to the social, political, geographical and economic times, contexts or dimensions that are one of the most important elements to mark the primary task that consists of transmitting a type of specific and disciplinary professional training that gives them the elements, capacities, skills and values its students so that when they graduate they do so with a truly humanistic, holistic, critical, reflective and innovative vision about their immediate or future tasks in the society where they will be inserted in the workplace to face the present and an already uncertain future.

Thinking about the future of education and of the students and graduates of the ACS/UAZ in a context as complicated as the one that currently exists is a task that is considered difficult and complicated. Paradoxically, when the teacher feels more secure about his work, it is when he requires and has the greatest need to think and act with a vision of the future due to the recent educational and social crisis presented by the state and the country, which has been analyzed as the main symptom of exhaustion of a traditional educational model that no longer has many possibilities of being sustained in the medium and long term without profound changes in both teaching and learning. Without going into the details of these debates and approaches, the truth is that for educational, academic, ethical, moral, political, social and health-illness reasons, linked in one way or another to the training of professional, disciplinary, competent graduates and competitive, it is urgent to promote a true educational link in the area between teaching and research. The imperative that is presented is the construction of a new educational process, with higher levels of academic, disciplinary and social achievement, with patterns of behavior and attitudes typical of a professional in the health area such as those currently required by the cosmopolitan and globalized society. of the 21st century, with more equitable possibilities of acceptance, with a more democratic, critical, empathetic vision and action, and with high initiative to participate in decision-making on their part as health professionals and at the same time as citizens. in the environment where they work. In short, we are facing a great challenge, to build a new higher education, in which there are higher levels to learn and generate knowledge, knowledge and supportive experiences, inter-professional cohesion, intergenerational ethical and moral responsibility, the big question It will be to know if the intention and objective of building this new type of teaching-research link can have sufficient potential to generate new horizons of scholastic, academic, political and social recognition to the Autonomous University of Zacatecas and in particular to the Area of Health Sciences, only time could tell.


  1. Porlán Ariza R (2011) The teacher as researcher in the classroom. Investigate to know, know to teach. In Teaching and research in the classroom. An essential relationship, Porfirio Morán Oviedo (compiler), IISUE-UNAM, México, p. 29-33.
  2. Solís Muñoz JB, Cevallos Jiménez PF, Erazo Álvarez JC (2023) Factors associated with the innovative university teaching profile. Conrado Magazine 19(90): 8-14.
  3. Santos Guerra MA (1993) Evaluation: a process of dialogue, understanding and improvement. Research in School Magazine, University of Malaga, Spain.
  4. Verónica R, Indacochea González, et al. (2018) Linkage as a strategy of the Higher Education Institution. Scientific Magazine, Domain of Sciences 4(3).
  5. Herrera González JD (2011) The training of teacher researchers, the scientific status of pedagogical research. International Journal of Research in Education, 3(5) Bogotá, Colombia.
  6. López de Parra L, Hernández Durán X, Quintero Romero F (2018) Teaching research in higher education. Latin American Journal of Educational Studies, Manizales, Colombia, 14(1).