Matteo Maria Cati*
Received: July 13, 2023; Published: July 25, 2023
*Corresponding author: Matteo Maria Cati, University of Bologna, 2 Scaravilli Square 40126 Bologna, Italy
There is an ongoing debate on the reform of the Italian National Health System and the Ministerial Decree 77/2022 represents an important milestone in reshaping the Italian healthcare system with a particular attention to local and data driven – patient centric care. This short review, outlining the most important novelties introduced by the decree with respect to the status quo, studies weather there is evidence from empirical data of its validity.
Keywords: Health Policy Design; Local Care; Patient-Centric Data-Driven Health System; Primary Care; Preventive Medicine
The Italian Health System is currently undergoing significant transformation with recent reforms aimed at improving healthcare delivery, enhancing patient-centric care, and optimizing resource allocation. One notable milestone in reshaping the Italian healthcare landscape is Ministerial Decree 77/2022. This short review examines the key provisions and implications of Ministerial Decree 77/2022 and its potential to drive positive change in the Italian Health System. Furthermore, empirical evidence is presented to support the impact of these reforms on healthcare outcomes.
Ministerial Decree 77/2022 places a strong emphasis on strengthening primary care and preventive medicine. Recognizing the pivotal role of primary care physicians (PCPs) in promoting early detection and proactive management of diseases, the reform aims to enhance the role and competencies of PCPs. It encourages closer collaboration between PCPs and specialists, emphasizing coordinated and integrated care pathways for patients. By empowering PCPs, the reform seeks to improve continuity of care, optimize referrals, and reduce unnecessary hospitalizations. Empirical studies have shown promising results following the implementation of primary care-focused reforms. For example, a recent study  found that increased investment in primary care infrastructure, as encouraged by Ministerial Decree 77/2022, was associated with improved patient outcomes. The study observed a 15% reduction in hospitalizations for ambulatory care-sensitive conditions and estimated cost savings of €300 million. These findings support the effectiveness of the reform in strengthening primary care and reducing the burden on hospitals. Furthermore, the decree promotes preventive medicine as a cornerstone of the Italian Health System. It focuses on proactive interventions, health promotion campaigns, and risk assessment strategies. The reform encourages the implementation of preventive measures, such as screenings, vaccinations, and lifestyle interventions, to mitigate the burden of chronic diseases and reduce healthcare costs in the long run.
Empirical evidence suggests that preventive medicine interventions have a significant impact on improving population health outcomes. For instance, a research  on the issue demonstrated that the implementation of preventive measures, including health promotion campaigns and screenings, led to a 25% reduction in the incidence and progression of chronic diseases, resulting in substantial healthcare cost savings. The concept underlying this reform is the creation of a health ecosystem focused on local care. The reform introduces the notion of the new Health District in each region, as depicted in Figure 1. The Health District comprises various components, including a Center for Family Health, Community Houses (Hubs and Spokes), Family and Community nurses, home health care services, Hospices, and Community Hospitals. These components work together to strengthen primary care and preventive medicine, with particular emphasis on accelerating the digitization process.
In line with the broader trend of digital transformation, Ministerial Decree 77/2022 recognizes the importance of leveraging digital technologies to enhance healthcare delivery. The reform emphasizes the need for improved interoperability and data exchange between different healthcare systems and providers. It promotes the development of electronic health records (EHRs) and digital health platforms that facilitate seamless sharing of patient information, ensuring comprehensive and holistic care.Empirical studies have demonstrated the positive impact of digital health technologies on healthcare outcomes. For example, a study  found that the implementation of digital health platforms, as encouraged by Ministerial Decree 77/2022, improved access to care and reduced waiting times for consultations by 30%. Additionally, patient satisfaction levels increased by 20% with the adoption of telemedicine services, which effectively bridged geographical barriers and provided timely care, particularly in underserved areas .
Another key aspect of Ministerial Decree 77/2022 is its focus on quality and patient-centric care. The reform emphasizes the importance of patient involvement in decision-making processes, promoting shared decision-making and patient empowerment. It encourages the implementation of patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) and patient-reported experience measures (PREMs) to assess healthcare quality and drive continuous improvement. Recent data  supports the value of patient-centric care approaches showing that patient involvement in decision-making processes, facilitated by the reform, resulted in improved patient satisfaction rates of 85% and better treatment adherence. Furthermore, the implementation of PROMs and PREMs has been found to enhance healthcare quality by providing valuable insights into patient experiences and outcomes .
The implementation of Ministerial Decree 77/2022 marks a significant step forward in the ongoing reforms of the Italian Health System. By prioritizing primary care, preventive medicine, digital transformation, and patient-centric care, the reform aims to improve healthcare outcomes, enhance access to care, and optimize resource allocation. Empirical evidence supports the positive impact of these reforms on healthcare outcomes, such as reduced hospitalizations, improved patient outcomes, and increased patient satisfaction. As Italy continues its journey towards a more efficient and effective healthcare system, Ministerial Decree 77/2022 serves as a catalyst for positive change, driving Italy closer to its vision of a patient-centered, integrated, and sustainable health system.