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Paradigm of Studying History of Medicine, from Al- Buyed Daynasty to AL-Mohads Empire Volume 49- Issue 5

Mohammadreza Shahidipak*

  • Professor assistant Islamic Azad University Central Tehran Branch, Iran

Received: April 04, 2023;   Published: April 17, 2023

*Corresponding author: Mohammadreza Shahidipak, Professor assistant Islamic Azad University Central Tehran Branch, Iran

DOI: 10.26717/BJSTR.2023.49.007860

Abstract PDF


Medical history research shows that the study of medical history in a period of its history in the late Middle Ages leads researchers to a mental model and a dynamic paradigm in the history of medicine. The description of this hypothesis is as follows: Medicine after the ancient period through Islamic civilization went through a long process of development in Middle Ages from Al- Buyed daynasty to AL-Mohads Empire in Maghreb and Andalusia (Spain and Portugal in Middle Ages). This historical period includes systematic, purposeful and integrated progress and development of medical education and has a special identity and education in history of global medicine and has a physical role in course of medical history from ancient to modern era. This period started with Razes, Avicenna and Magusi and ended with Ibn Tufail, Ibn Bajah and Averroes in west of Islamic world, and hallmark of this period is Avicenna ‘s book (Qanun) at beginning and Ibn Averroes’s Colliget (al-Kulliyat fi al-Tibb “, The General Principles of Medicine”,) at the end. The classical texts of Islamic medicine were compiled in this era, and the medicine of this period is a phenomenon of the Middle Ages. The plan of the first traditional medicine by Ibn Sina is reflected in the Qanun, which includes all ancient medical knowledge with secret updates. This collection as best Description at Qanun of Avicenna now has an impact factor in medical research centers and living cases studied in medicine, and with Averres’s efforts in Colliget, he has tried to provide a coherent list of Islamic medical knowledge in Middle Ages. At this time, Islamic civilization appeared in science of surgery as founder and innovator with work of Zahrawi, al-Tasrif., He pointed out invisible factor of disease transmission and reached final flowering of medicinal plants with work of Ibn Wafid (5701), discovered medical, clinical, and social reasons of epidemic, compiled and developed knowledge of health, and created a classic work in medicinal plants and agriculture, and pioneer dentistry. How to use camel bone for use in human teeth and new achievement in Ophthalmology in 1087, Averroes initiatives show that a dynamic system of nature studies in terms of medicine has taken place in Islamic civilization, which is generator of new perspectives. which has completely distinguished ancient period from Middle Ages.

Keywords: Medicine; Islamic Civilization; Hygiene Averroes

Updating Ancient Medical Knowledge

Al-Havi and Qanun, Update of Ancient Medicine in East of Islamic World

One of events in the history of medicine is how to leave ancient medical knowledge to the Middle Ages. Razes has done this work in al- Havi, and background stage of departure from ancient teachings was Ibn Sina’s jumping platform in compiling Qanun, first pure classical work of medicine in Islamic civilization. Today, medical history circles are aware of the importance of Razes’s work in updating ancient medical knowledge. The book in 7th century four century after production by Egyptian doctor Ibn Abi Asiba’a with title of most comprehensive medical work Tar Vazgar Razes includes teachings of past and contemporaries and has been updated with Razes’s personal experiences and compilation of this encyclopedia took fifteen years.

The Development of Ancient Medicinal Knowledge After Translation of Descorides into Arabic in the West of Islamic World

The development of medicinal knowledge in history is one of first measures of Islamic civilization. For the first time, a collection of ancient medicinal knowledge was brought from the ancient world to medieval world by translating it into Arabic. Descorides, oldest collection of human pharmacology, was translated from Latin to Arabic by Arabs in Bait al-Hikmeh of Qairvan. There is a part of herbal medicine book - Al-Aqaqir al-Tabiyyah - Discorides on the bark of Ahu from the second and third centuries of the 8th and 9th AH in the National Library of Paris, which was published by Dobler Suisse.

The Transmission of Ancient Philosophical Knowledge to Middle Ages from Kennedy to Averroes

Kennedy (378) and Averroes (9913) earned title of Philosopher of Arabs and Al-Sharah for their efforts in transferring ancient philosophical and intellectual knowledge to Middle Ages. According to Averroes’s contemporaries, many of works of Aristotle and Plato are available through their Arabic versions and Averroes’s commentaries, and one of Ibn Rushd’s most important actions was to collect works of Aristotle and Plato from Europe and translate and explain them into Arabic, which became Arabic Commentary. The world’s awareness of Aristotle and Plato is through Averroes.

Development and Compilation of Specialized Medical Physical Education in Islamic Civilization

The Beginning and Establishment of Surgery as a Science in Islamic Civilization

Development and compilation of surgical science in the Middle Ages. Surgery entered a stage of science with the creation of new devices, and this was done by Andalusian doctor Zahrawi. He proposed surgery as a science. Abu al-Qasim Zahrawi (404) is one of greatest physicians of Islamic era, who is greatest physician of Islamic era in field of surgery and is founder and innovator and wrote book «Al-Tasrif Leman ajaza an Al-Talif». And in the Middle Ages, he made 164 instruments in surgery.

The First Reference to Agent of Disease Transmission

The doctors of Islamic civilization discovered for first time that cause of disease is not a natural cause and has nothing to do with Pan and devils but is an invisible entity. - 8-2- Development of blood research Razes, Avicenna, Jorjani, Ibn Al-Nafis have said new issues regarding heart and blood compared to ancient medicine. The first new research on human blood, which changed medical view from the ancient period to blood in Middle Ages, is research of Ibn Nafis (1288).

Islamic Civilization and Extraordinary Development of Ophthalmology

The only ophthalmic indicator of Islamic civilization in Middle Ages is sufficient to determine distance between ancient and later indicators in terms of quantity and quality. Avicenna in his book ‘Qanoon’, It has identified 49 types of eye diseases and 63 prescriptions of combined medicines to treat these diseases.

The Extraordinary Development of Health Science in Islamic Civilization

The most rooted issue of Islamic medicine is body hygiene and maintaining its health. His health is derived from teachings of Islam. In field of Islam, it is considered a religious duty. The founder of Islamic medicine wrote a treatise on health.

Abu Rehan Biruni and References to Genetics

During his trip to India, Buruni () studied Indian plants with eyes of an herbalist, and in his work, there is a reference to control of external characteristics of flowers by means of hidden properties in them, which is first brief reference to genetics and existence of internal characteristics and appearance of plant.

The Final Step of Islamic Medicine and Systematization by Averroes

The importance of Averroes in history of medicine is that he has tried to provide a complete report and editing of several centuries of knowledge and medical experiences of Islamic civilization in last stage of Islamic civilization, and his book summarizes knowledge from Razi to Averroes in a systematic and systematic way. has done [1].

The Result, Conversation, Achievement

The collection of ancient medical knowledge is quantitatively and qualitatively inferior to that of the Middle Ages, and there has been a leap between ancient times and Middle Ages, which must be studied and investigated. And, to enter from medieval period to modern period, matter is same, and there is a renaissance between medieval and modern periods, which has caused civilizational fusion of medieval and modern periods. This article comes to practical conclusion that Islamic civilization is the physical point of the history of civilization and connection between antiquity and Middle Ages is owed to Islamic civilization and two transitions have been made by Islamic civilization:

1. The transition of medical representatives from the ancient period to the Middle Ages.

2. Transition of Medical knowledge from Middle Ages to t modern period. The current research provides a model in this field that can show recovery and reopening in other eras and shows that quality and quantity of civilization is developing with extraordinary speed in different eras. Only this phenomenon as a Phoenix.

It casts a shadow over all skies of science and civilization in the late Middle Ages.


  1. Shahidipak Mohammadreza (2023) Islamic Civilization and Culture in west and east of Islamic territories, Phoenix, Saray Ketab Publisher Qom.