Advances in medicine and pharmacy have saved many lives from death. Researchers and scientists around the world have made great strides with their findings, not only improving public knowledge with their findings but also keeping hope alive in the hearts of some people with incurable diseases. Various sciences accompanied medicine and pharmacy in this development, one of which is polymer engineering. Polymers due to amazing properties can be used as prostheses, drug carriers, gene delivery, etc. Polymers are unique candidates for the release of anticancer drugs. Non-toxicity, and biodegradability are important features of a carrier. This study summarizes cancer statistics and introduces several polymer-carriers.
Keywords: Cancer; Polymer; Carrier; Dendrimer; Micelle; Chitosan
The development of human societies has been accompanied
by deforestation, environmental pollution, and the destruction of
animal habitats, which have put human health at increasing risk.
Improper use of pesticides, drought, ozone depletion, surface
water pollution, and extinction of many animal species are the
gift of modern human life, which have caused many diseases [1-
13]. Cancer has been the cause of human death for decades and
has become a major public health problem in the world [14,15].
The deaths statistics from cancer in various parts of the world is
shocking [16,17]. Unfortunately, this disease is seen at all ages
and can be a serious threat to health [18,19]. Breast, prostate,
lung, colorectal, and stomach cancers are the most common
cancers in the world. Screening tests, changing nutrition patterns
and reduced use of cigarettes and alcohol can greatly reduce the
incidence of the disease. Unfortunately, despite many advances in
cancer, the cost of treatment remains high, so the golden time for
early diagnosis and treatment is lost [20-24]. Contrary to popular
belief, cancer is not the end of life, and in recent years a wide
range of this disease has been cured and human has returned to
normal life. Cancer treatment has progressed wonderfully, surgery,
radiotherapy, and chemotherapy can destroy tumors and arrest
cancer progression. Radiotherapy and chemotherapy are used
to destroy or shrink cancerous tissue. In these methods, damage
to the deoxyribonucleic acid of cells destroys the target tissue,
progress and division become impossible. Although in addition
to cancer cells, healthy cells are also damaged, most healthy cells
recover again. In conventional chemotherapy drug is distributed
as general in the body, and because some drugs have serious side
effects, they can also affect normal cells, and that these side effects
cause to restrict the frequency and size of dosages [25,26].
Paclitaxel and doxorubicin are two of the most used drugs in the treatment of many cancers. Paclitaxel is a toxoid antineoplastic that interferes with the normal function of microtubule growth. This drug has a wide range of side effects, including risk of infection, closing of the throat, breathlessness and looking pale, bruising and bleeding, allergic reaction, hair loss, muscle and joint pain [27,28]. Doxorubicin is an antineoplastic in the anthracycline class. These compounds are isolated from natural sources and antibiotics, they lack the specificity of the antimicrobial antibiotics and thus produce significant toxicity. Doxorubicin is widely used to treat several types of cancer. Also, doxorubicin has serious side effects such as heart damage [29,30]. As can be seen, drugs have many side effects that can in some cases weaken the patient and thus disrupt the healing process. Nanoparticles have many applications in medicine and nanocomposites due to their unique properties [31-38]. In recent years, nanoparticles have been used extensively to diagnose and treat cancer . Nanoparticles can penetrate cancer cells and increase the concentration of drugs in them while preventing toxicity in normal cells. However, nanoparticles still have limitations such as instability in circulatory system and toxicity. Polymers due to their amazing properties are used in a wide range of applications, such as batteries, coatings, adhesives, solar cells, drug carriers, and Prosthesis [40-46]. They can be suitable carriers and prevent premature destruction of the drug and improve their stability and prolong the presence of the drug in the circulatory system. The function of polymer-carriers differs in terms of drug release.
Commonly, we can say that drugs are graft to them, and with changes such as temperature, chemical activation (biodegradation), solvent activation, pH, etc., this bond is destroyed and the drug is released. The drug can be loaded on the carrier or the carrier can act as a protective shield and hold the drug in the core. The top polymer-carriers can be classified into three groups: dendrimers, chitosan, and micelles. In recent years, a lot of research has been done on this field. Dehghani, et al.  they studied the fabricate new electrolyte/non-electrolyte janus particles with low cytotoxicity as carriers of doxorubicin. For this purpose, seeded emulsion polymerizations of 2-(dimethylamino) ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) and methacrylic acid (MAA) were performed in presence of poly (2-hydroxyehtyl methacrylate) particles as seed to fabricate Janus particles. These particles were then used as carriers of doxorubicin in different conditions. All samples showed high loading capacity and long-time release process. The results of cytotoxicity showed PMAA-based particles had no mentionable cell toxicity whereas PDMAEMA-based ones had moderate cytotoxicity. Moreover, all drug-loaded particles prohibited cell growth significantly. Najafi, et al.  they studied the new method for the synthesis of Janus dendrimers. The new method has three main stages for the synthesis of Janus dendrimers including synthesis of 5th generation Poly(propylene imine) dendrimer with cystamine core and hydrophobic surface, conversion of disulfide bonds to thiol group using a structure scission approach, and the formation of polyamido amine hydrophilic dendrons with amine end groups. This Janus dendrimers have resulted in significant improvements in drug solubility. Also, solubility of the two hydrophobic drugs in water was increased by increasing concentration and generation of dendrimer. Also, self-assembly of Janus dendrimer in water led to formation of spherical micelles besides cubic ones with sizes almost < 100nm. Xu et al.  they studied the poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-detachable pH-responsive self-assembled from amphiphilic copolymer poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether-Dlabile- poly(β-amino ester)-Dlabile-poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether consisting of pH-labile bonds and pH-sensitive blocks. Doxorubicinloaded polymeric micelles can accumulate at the tumor site via an enhanced permeability.
The Doxorubicin molecules are controlled release from the carriers at specific pH values. The results demonstrate that Doxorubicin-loaded polymeric micelles have the capability of showing high therapeutic efficacy and negligible cytotoxicity compared with free Doxorubicin in vitro and in vivo. polymeric micelles had spherical morphology with an average size of 200nm. Yang et al.  they studied a novel polymeric prodrug micellar carrier based on polyethylene glycol (PEG)-derivatized glycyrrhizic acid (GA) (PEG-Fmoc-GA), was developed for co-delivery of doxorubicin as a combined anti-cancer treatment. Polymeric micelles containing doxorubicin ranged in size from 184 to 290nm. Also, PEG-Fmoc-GA conjugated micelles significantly facilitated the intracellular uptake of doxorubicin by HepG2 cells, when compared to a doxorubicin solution alone. In addition, doxorubicin encapsulated in PEG-Fmoc-GA micelles displayed longer blood circulation time, larger drug concentration area under the curve, decreased volume distribution and clearance than doxorubicin solution. Xie et al.  they studied the a facile approach was established to fabricate the pH-responsive surface charge reversal carboxymethyl chitosan-based drug delivery system for pH and reduction dual-responsive triggered doxorubicin release, with a reduction responsive sheddable shell via facile organic solventfree co-precipitation method. For this purpose, doxorubicin was loaded in the pH responsive core of the poly(2-(diisopropylamino) ethyl methacrylate) (PDPA) fragments, which were bio reducibly conjugated onto the PEGylated carboxymethyl chitosan (PEGCMCS) backbone as reduction responsive sheddable shielding shell. The proposed nanoparticles, with a high drug loading capacity of >36% with drug-loading only in their cores, showed excellent pH and reduction dual-responsive triggered disintegration and doxorubicin release performance with cumulative release >85% in the simulated tumor intracellular microenvironment. Chen et al.  they studied the formation and properties of a novel polyelectrolyte complex of drug carrier system for the delivery of doxorubicin, which consists of hyaluronic acid coated hydrophobically modified chitosan. The nanoparticles had an average size between 280 and 310nm. The results showed that doxorubicin could be easily incorporated into the nanoparticles with encapsulation efficiency and kept a sustained release manner without burst effect when exposed to phosphate-buffered saline (pH 7.4) at 37°C. In general, polymers are good candidates for drug carriers, they are commonly used to release drugs such as doxorubicin, paclitaxel, methotrexate, nystatin, vinblastine, cisplatin, rapamycin, fenofibrate, and carvedilol [53-57].
We believe that polymeric carriers are a good method to treat cancer. The growing trend of science promises a successful future. Polymeric carriers can load multiple drugs simultaneously, so the chemotherapy steps can be reduced, thereby causing less damage to healthy cells. It can be said that the best advantage of polymer carriers is that the drug is delivered to the target tissue, which prevents other cells from being affected by the drug and minimizes the side effects of the drug.
- Korc M, Jeon CY, Edderkaoui M, Pandol SJ, Petrov MS (2017) Tobacco and alcohol as risk factors for pancreatic cancer. Best Pract Res Cl Ga 31(5): 529-536.
- Hashibe M, Brennan P, Benhamou S, Castellsague X, Chen C, et al. (2007) Alcohol Drinking in Never Users of Tobacco, Cigarette Smoking in Never Drinkers, and the Risk of Head and Neck Cancer: Pooled Analysis in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology Consortium. J Natl Cancer I 99(10): 777-789.
- Boffetta P, Hashibe M (2006) Alcohol and cancer. Lancet Oncol 7(2): 149-156.
- Alinia-Ahandani E, Sheydaei M, Shirani-Bidabadi B, Alizadeh-Terepoei Z (2020) Some effective medicinal plants on cardiovascular diseaaes in Iran-a review. J Glob Trends Pharm Sci 11(3): 8021-8033.
- Alinia-Ahandani E, Alizadeh-Terepoei Z, Sheydaei M (2020) Some Pointed Medicinal Plants to Treat the Tick-Borne Disease. Op Acc J Bio Sci & Res 1(5):1-3.
- Alinia-Ahandani E, Sheydaei M (2020) Overview of the Introduction to the New Coronavirus (Covid19): A Review. J Med Biol Sci Res 6(2): 14-20.
- Krueger MC, Harms H, Schlosser D (2015) Prospects for microbiological solutions to environmental pollution with plastics. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 99(21): 8857-8874.
- Wang M, He Y, Sen B (2019) Research and management of plastic pollution in coastal environments of China. Environ Pollut 248: 898-905.
- Alinia-Ahandani E, Alizadeh-Terepoei Z Sheydaei M, Peysepar-Balalami F (2020) Assessment of soil on some heavy metals and its pollution in Roodsar-Iran. Biomed J Sci & Tech Res 28(5): 21977-21979.
- Alinia-Ahandani E, Fazilati M, Boghozian A, Alinia-Ahandani M (2019) Effect of ultraviolet (UV) radiation bonds on growth and chlorophyll content of Dracocephalummoldavica L herb. J. Biomol. Res. Ther 8(1): 1-4.
- Alinia-Ahandani E, Alizadeh-Trepoei Z, Boghozian A (2019) Positive Role of Green Tea as An Anti-Cancer Biomedical Source in Iran Northern. Am J Biomed Sci& Res 5(1): 39-42.
- Alinia-Ahandani E. Boghozian A, Alizadeh-Trepoei Z (2019) New Approaches of Some Herbs Used for Reproductive Issues in the World: Short Review. J Gynecol Women’s Health 16(1):1-7.
- Alinia-Ahandani E, Fazilati M, Alizadeh Z, Boghozian A (2018) The Introduction of Some Mushrooms as an Effective Source of Medicines in Iran Northern. Biol Med (Aligarh) 10(5): 451.
- Jemal A, Siegel R, Xu J, Ward E (2010) Cancer Statistics. CA-Cancer J Clin 60(5): 277-300.
- Siegel R, Naishadham D, Jemal A (2013) Cancer Statistics. CA-Cancer J Clin 63(1): 11-30.
- Siegel R, Ma J, Zou Z, Jemal A (2014) Cancer Statistics. CA-Cancer J Clin 64(1): 9-29.
- Siegel RL, Miller KD, Jemal A (2015) Cancer Statistics. CA-Cancer J Clin 65(1): 5-29.
- Siegel RL, Miller KD, Jemal A (2016) Cancer Statistics. CA-Cancer J Clin 66(1): 7-30.
- Siegel RL, Miller KD, Jemal A (2017) Cancer Statistics. CA-Cancer J Clin 67(1): 7-30.
- Siegel RL, Miller KD, Jemal A (2018) Cancer Statistics. CA-Cancer J Clin 68(1): 7-30.
- Siegel RL, Miller KD, Jemal A (2019) Cancer Statistics. CA-Cancer J Clin 69(1): 7-22.
- Siegel RL, Miller KD, Jemal A (2020) Cancer Statistics. CA-Cancer J Clin 70(1): 7-30.
- Bray F, Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Siegel RL, Torre LA, et al. (2018) Global Cancer Statistics 2018: GLOBOCAN Estimates of Incidence and Mortality Worldwide for 36 Cancers in 185 Countries. CA-Cancer J Clin 68(6): 394-424.
- Roshandel G, Ghanbari-Motlagh A, Partovipour E, Salavati F, Hasanpour-Heidari S, et al. (2019) Cancer incidence in Iran in 2014: Results of the Iranian National Populationbased Cancer Registry. Cancer Epidemiol 61: 50-58.
- Fox ME, Szoka FC, Fréchet JMJ (2009) Soluble Polymer Carriers for the Treatment of Cancer: The Importance of Molecular Architecture. Acc Chem Res. 42(8): 1141-1151.
- Cho K, Wang X, Nie S, Chen Z, Shin DM (2008) Therapeutic Nanoparticles for Drug Delivery in Cancer. Clin Cancer Res 14(5): 1310-1316.
- Walker FE (1993) Paclitaxel (TAXOL®): Side Effects and Patient Education Issues. Semin Oncol Nurs 9(4): 6-10.
- Ghetti E, Piraccini BM, Tosti A (2003) Onycholysis and subungual haemorrhages secondary to systemic chemotherapy (paclitaxel). JEADV 17(4): 459-460.
- Cabral H, Kataoka K (2014) Progress of drug-loaded polymeric micelles into clinical studies. J Control Release 190(28): 465-476.
- Thorn CF, Oshiro C, Marsh S, Hernandez-Boussard T, McLeod H, et al. (2011) Doxorubicin pathways: pharmacodynamics and adverse effects. Pharmacogenet Genom 21(7): 440-446.
- Chow EKH, Ho D (2013) Cancer Nanomedicine: From Drug Delivery to Imaging. Sci Transl Med 5(216): 216rv4.
- Haghighi AH, Sheydaei M, Allahbakhsh A, Ghatarband M, Sadat Hosseini F (2014) Thermal performance of poly (ethylene disulfide)/expanded graphite nanocomposites. J Therm Anal Calorim 117: 525-535.
- Allahbakhsh A, Sheydaei M, Mazinani S, kalaee MR (2013) Enhanced thermal properties of poly (ethylene tetrasulfide) via expanded graphite incorporation by in situ polymerization method. High Perform Polym 25(5): 576-583.
- Allahbakhsh A, Haghighi AH, Sheydaei M (2017) Poly (ethylene trisulfide)/graphene oxide nanocomposites: A study on interfacial interactions and thermal performance. J Therm Anal Calorim 128(1): 427-442.
- Bagherinia MA, Sheydaei M, Giahi M (2017) Graphene oxide as a compatibilizer for polyvinyl chloride/rice straw composites. J Polym Eng 37(7): 661-670.
- Sheydaei M, Alinia-Ahandani E (2020) Synthesis and characterization of methylene-xylene-based polysulfide block-copolymer/carbon nanotube nanocomposites via in situ polymerization method. J Sulfur Chem 41(4): 421-434.
- Sadeghi Nasrabadi H, Kalaee MR, Abdouss M, Sheydaei M, Mazinani S (2013) New Role of Layered Silicates as Phase Transfer Catalyst for In Situ Polymerization of Poly (ethylene tetrasulfide) Nanocomposite. J Inorg Organomet Polym Mater 23(4): 950-957.
- Kumar S, Sharma JG, Maji S, Malhotra BD (2016) Nanostructured zirconia decorated reduced graphene oxide based efficient biosensing platform for non-invasive oral cancer detection. Biosens Bioelectron 78: 497-504.
- Sheydaei M, Jabari H, Ali-Asgari Dehaghi H (2016) Synthesis and characterization of ethylene-xylene-based polysulfide block-copolymers using the interfacial polymerization method. J Sulfur Chem 37(6): 646-655.
- Sheydaei M, Kalaee MR, Allahbakhsh A, Samar M, Aghili A, et al. (2012) Characterization of synthesized poly(aryldisulfide) through interfacial polymerization using phase-transfer catalyst. J Sulfur Chem 33(3): 303-311.
- Sheydaei M, Kalaee MR, Allahbakhsh A, Moradi Rufchahi EO, Moosavi G, et al. (2013) Synthesis and characterization of poly (p-xylylene tetrasulfide) via interfacial polycondensation in the presence of phase transfer catalysts. Des Monomers Polym 16(2): 191-196.
- Sheydaei M, Allahbakhsh A, Haghighi AH, Ghadi A (2014) Synthesis and characterization of poly (methylene disulfide) and poly (ethylene disulfide) polymers in the presence of a phase transfer catalyst. J Sulfur Chem 35(1): 5295-5301.
- Sheydaei M, Talebi S, Salami-Kalajahi M (2020) Synthesis of ethylene dichloride-based polysulfide polymers: investigation of polymerization yield and effect of sulfur content on solubility and flexibility. J Sulfur Chem pp. 1-16.
- Sheydaei M, Edraki M, Alinia-Ahandani E, Moradi Rufchahi E, Ghiasvandnia P (2020) Poly(p-xylene disulfide) and poly(p-xylene tetrasulfide): synthesis, cure and investigation of mechanical and thermophysical properties. J Macromol Sci A pp. 1-8.
- Sheydaei M, KalaeeMR, DadgarM, Navid-Famili MH, Shockravi A, et al. (2011) Synthesis and characterization of a novel aromatic polysulfide in the presence of phase transfer catalyst. 27th World Congress of the Polymer Processing Society, May 10-14, Marrakech, Morocco 16(2): 191-196.
- Dehghani E, Barzgari-Mazgar T, Salami-Kalajahi M, Kahaie-Khosrowshahi M (2020) A pH-controlled approach to fabricate electrolyte/non-electrolyte janus particles with low cytotoxicity as carriers of DOX. Mater. Chem. Phys 249: 123000.
- Najafi F, Salami-Kalajahi M, Roghani-Mamaqani H (2020) Synthesis of amphiphilic Janus dendrimer and its application in improvement of hydrophobic drugs solubility in aqueous media. Eur. Polym. J 134: 109804.
- Xu M, Zhang CY, Wu J, Zhou H, Bai R, et al. (2019) PEG-Detachable Polymeric Micelles Self-Assembled from Amphiphilic Copolymers for Tumor-Acidity-Triggered Drug Delivery and Controlled Release. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 11(6): 5701-5713.
- Yang T, Lan Y, Cao M, Ma X, Cao A, et al. (2019) Glycyrrhetinic acid-conjugated polymeric prodrug micelles co-delivered with doxorubicin as combination therapy treatment for liver cancer. Colloids Surf. B 175: 106-115.
- Xie P, Liu P (2020) pH-responsive surface charge reversal carboxymethyl chitosan-based drug delivery system for pH and reduction dual-responsive triggered DOX release. Carbohydr. Polym 236: 116093.
- Chen L, Zheng Y, Feng L, Liu Z, Guo R, et al. (2018) Novel hyaluronic acid coated hydrophobically modified chitosan polyelectrolyte complex for the delivery of doxorubicin. Int J Biol Macromol 126: 254-261.
- Gillies ER, Fréchet JMJ (2005) Dendrimers and dendritic polymers in drug delivery. Drug Discov Today 10(1): 35-43.
- PatriAK, MajorosIJ, Jr JRB (2002) Dendritic polymer macromolecular carriers for drug delivery. CurrOpinChem Biol 6(4): 466-471.
- Ali A, Ahmed S (2018) A review on chitosan and its nanocomposites in drug delivery. Int J BiolMacromol 109: 273-286.
- Shin DH, Tam YT, Kwon GS (2016) Polymeric micelle nanocarriers in cancer research. Front CHhem Sci Eng 10: 348-359.
- Biswas S, Kumari P, Lakhani PM, Ghosh B (2016) Recent advances in polymeric micelles for anti-cancer drug delivery. Eur J Pharm Sci 83: 184-202.
- Alinia-Ahandani E (2018) Milk-increasing medicinal plants. J Pharm Sci Res 10(4).