We mostly know microorganisms by their negative impact that they are disease causing agents. But when we turn towards their positive
impact that they also have an important impact on agriculture production by helping plants in their growth. Microorganisms have been an
integral part of soil since ever earth formed. They have the capability to turn soil into waste land and waste land into productive soil. They
increase soil fertility by incorporating air, minerals and nitrogenous compounds. They contribute in increasing plant growth by providing
essential elements, minerals that plants cannot utilize by their Owen. Microorganisms decompose organic matter to simpler form that can be
easily uptake by plants.
The physical and chemical composition of soil varies
throughout the earth [1,2]. A hand full of soil contains millions of
microorganisms which function in increasing soil fertility and plant
growth . Usually, people think that microorganisms are agents
of disease, however, they have direct role in increasing soil fertility.
These microbes help in the decomposition of organic matter.
Different microbes decompose different organic matter . Due to
their role in improving soil fertility has become major investigation
subject during the recent past. Many nutrients develop in soil due
to the biological transformation by the action of microorganism
. They effect soil functioning by making it fertile. The soil which
contain high number of microorganisms considered as most
fertile soil. These microscopic creatures ensure the permanent
existence of nutrients in soil. Successful agriculture is the result of
management of these nutrients in soil .
In agro ecosystem, nutrient status in soil is determined by
identification and quality of microorganisms . This helps
agriculturist to maintain these nutrients in soil to get greater yield
of crops. The number of species of microorganism directly depends
on the physical and chemical nature of soil . Different studies
have shown that microbial community structure is determined by
environmental factors and chemical properties of soil [9-12]. Soil
nutrients influenced due to land and soil management which results
in process such as erosion, oxidation, leaching and mineralization.
Due to these processes, the activity of soil microorganism may
increase or decrease which results in affecting soil fertility [13,14].
Both bacteria and fungi with organic matter may increase soil
fertility and the production of soil [15-18].