info@biomedres.us   +1 (720) 414-3554   One Westbrook Corporate Center, Suite 300, Westchester, IL 60154, USA   Site Map
ISSN: 2574 -1241

Impact Factor : 0.548

  Submit Manuscript

Mini ReviewOpen Access

Novel Methods in Nanomedicine for Drug Delivery Systems: Cancer Therapies

Mozhdeh Haddadi*

  • Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biological Sciences Tarbiat Modares University, Iran

Received: June 19, 2017;   Published: June 28, 2017

Corresponding author: Mozhdeh Haddadi, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biological Sciences Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

DOI: 10.26717/BJSTR.2017.01.000154

Abstract

Nanotechnology is a general design science that will provide us strong novel implements that may modification every attribute of community. These technologies will location in our hands the potency to design problem at the atomic and molecular level. We will be capable to finally construct available products on-demand and more cheaply. More interestingly, using inherent ideologies and developments, we will design produces that have never existed in nature. The main challenges in the efficient treatment of cancer patients are low effectiveness in drug delivery and inherent drug resistance in extremely heterogeneous human tumors. Chemotherapy drugs have little blood half-lives and confined extents of drugs can be delivered into tumors despite a lot doses of drugs being controlled to patients that reason severe systemic toxicity. Significant attentions when considering the potential that nanotechnology maintain to treat cancer.

Keywords: Nanomedicine; Drug delivery; Cancer nanomedicine

Nanomedicine

The recognition of new drug candidates for the remedy of illnesses such as cancer, infectious illnesses, allocates novel tasks for pharmaceutical technology [1]. With attention to drug delivery several problems happen like low bioavailability and hence low solubility or limitation to inappropriate paths of management. Nanotechnological near allow to circumvent several of these difficulties, therefore being well appropriate for future applications as nanomedicines. Furthermore, impressive and enough loading is an acute subject that is approached via nonspherical particles and/or via mesoporous particles both offering larger capacities and levels [2]. Particular attention is placed on the efficacy of figure of particulate materials on the body and associated physiological mechanisms [3]. The changed reply of biological systems on dissimilar shapes opens a novel dimension to regulate particle system interaction [4]. Eventually, the biological reply to these systems wills definition the destiny with respect to their therapeutic value. Consequently, the contact template among nonspherical particulate materials and biological systems as well as the manufacture developments are distinguished [5]. Nevertheless, significant development has been prepared so far during the progress of non spherical drug delivery systems. Also understanding and utilizing the modulation of biological replies by changing particulate figure, the growth of bioavailability of new drugs is a key, challenging difficult in modern drug delivery [6]. A resolution can be given by the use of nanoparticulate materials. While the potential of silica particles, e.g., for example gene carriers, has been shown widespread, the lately developed mesoporous silica nanoparticles permit the delivery of drug mixtures with poor solubility or the controlled deliverance of a drug over a longer time cycle [7]. Moreover, with respect to the use of more efficient and suitable paths of management these progresses will contribute to a more effective therapy in the future. This contains efforts to minimize therapeutic toxicity attended by a higher patient compliance and reduced health care prices. So, nanomedicine based on new methods for drug delivery systems is expected to develop a well-recognized term in modern medicine [8].

Cancer Nanomedicine

The intrinsic restriction of Contractual cancer therapies prompted the application and progress of different nanotechnologies for more effective and safer cancer treatment, in this study discussed to as cancer nanomedicine [9]. Substantial technological achievement has been succeeded in this scope, but the key hurdles to nanomedicine becoming a novel pattern in cancer therapy stem from the complication and heterogeneity of tumour biology, an unfinished comprehension of nano–bio interactions and the challenges regarding chemistry, making and controls needed for clinical translation and commercialization [10]. This Review highlights the development, challenges and chances in cancer nanomedicine and discusses novel engineering methods that investment on our increasing comprehension of tumour biology and nano-bio connections to progress more effective nanotherapeutics for cancer patients [11].

There are some basic details for the confined clinical translation of cancer nanomedicines, which contain low comprehension of the biological obstacles that nonmaterial’s face inside the body, misinterpretation of drug delivery meanings [12], cost-efficiency, manufacturing and scaling up, and controlling subjects. Most significantly, we must provide a more pragmatic delegation of the potential (and limitations) of cancer nanomedicines by ending the overgeneralization of aiming and delivery meanings as well as overselling preclinical outcomes.

Nucleic Acid Nanostructures

The capability to engineer modeler DNA nanostructures with high planning and precise spatial and dynamic control has permitted researchers to discover novel applications in cancer. Nano medicine Nucleic acid nanostructures are absorbent materials for this goal, due to their intrinsic plan modularity, structural planning and biocompatibility, nucleic acid molecules of a specific sequence can be changed to selectively bind, recognize and communicate with target cells to trigger organized transfer of therapeutic factors [13]. With the progress of different chemical conjugation techniques, it is now technically practical and suitable to current functional molecules, such as proteins or peptides, nucleic acids, inorganic nanoparticles and organic fluorophores at selected sites on nucleic acid nanostructures for production planned theranostic devices. Performing molecular computation directly on the surface of cells, or in cellular environments, will facilitate in vivo targeting and drug release [14].

Conclusion

Significant progresses of nanotechnology in cancer treatment give expectancy for the use of its attainments to treat a variety of other human diseases. Considerable examples contain neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease, which are on the growth due to the aging of the world population. The key to improve clinical of cancer nanomedicines lays that researchers to growth their understanding of nanomedicine connections in the body, approve a more realistic view of nanomedicine potential approach.

References

  1. Nwaka S, Hudson A (2006) Innovative lead discovery strategies for tropical diseases. Nature reviews Drug discovery 5(11): 941-955.
  2. Dhandayuthapani B, Yoshida Y, Maekawa T, Kumar DS (2011) Polymeric scaffolds in tissue engineering application: a review. International Journal of Polymer Science 2011: 19.
  3. De Jong WH, Borm PJ (2008) Drug delivery and nanoparticles: applications and hazards. International journal of nanomedicine 3(2): 133-149.
  4. Busseron E, Ruff Y, Moulin E, Giuseppone N (2013) Supramolecular selfassemblies as functional nanomaterials. Nanoscale 5(16): 7098-7140.
  5. Daum N, Tscheka C, Neumeyer A, Schneider M (2012) Novel approaches for drug delivery systems in nanomedicine: effects of particle design and shape. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology 4(1): 52-65.
  6. Leucuta SE (2013) Systemic and biophase bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of nanoparticulate drug delivery systems. Current drug delivery 10(2): 208-240.
  7. Ensign LM, Cone R, Hanes J (2012) Oral drug delivery with polymeric nanoparticles: the gastrointestinal mucus barriers. Advanced drug delivery reviews 64(6): 557-570.
  8. Salouti M, Ahangari A (2014) Nanoparticle based drug delivery systems for treatment of infectious diseases. Application of Nanotechnology in Drug Delivery: InTech.
  9. Hare JI, Lammers T, Ashford MB, Puri S, Storm G, et al. (2017) Challenges and strategies in anti-cancer nanomedicine development: an industry perspective. Advanced drug delivery reviews 108: 25-38.
  10. Sommer L (2014) Open questions: development of tumor cell heterogeneity and its implications for cancer treatment. BMC biology 12(1): 15.
  11. Ediriwickrema A, Saltzman WM (2015) Nanotherapy for cancer: targeting and multifunctionality in the future of cancer therapies. ACS biomaterials science & engineering 1(2): 64-78.
  12. Kwon IK, Lee SC, Han B, Park K (2012) Analysis on the current status of targeted drug delivery to tumors. Journal of Controlled Release 164(2): 108-114.
  13. Charoenphol P, Bermudez H (2014) Design and application of multifunctional DNA nanocarriers for therapeutic delivery. Acta biomaterialia 10(4): 1683-1691.
  14. Douglas SM, Bachelet I, Church GM (2012) A logic-gated nanorobot for targeted transport of molecular payloads. Science 335(6070): 831-834.