*Corresponding author:Okwa O Omolade, Department of Zoology and Environmental Biology, Lagos State University, Nigeria
Received: August 06, 2018; Published: August 10, 2018
To view the Full Article Peer-reviewed Article PDF
Introduction: Mosquitoes are slender, flying insects of the order diptera (true flies) in the arthropod Super-Phylum. They are deadly insects transmitting diseases such as malaria, elephantiasis and several arboviruses. The adaptability of mosquitoes is a problem and this is tantamount to greater spread of diseases. Malaria is the most widespread mosquito borne disease in Nigeria where it is holoendemic.
Aim: The source of malaria problem is the diverse breeding sites of mosquitoes. This work investigates preferred mosquito breeding water sites, physicochemical factors and colour cues influencing oviposition and development of mosquitoes.
Methods: Investigations were carried out on the preferred oviposition and breeding water sites of mosquitoes in the wild during the rainy season. 100 CL of water were collected from five water samples each of packaged water, polluted water, pond water, tap water and rain water. The water samples were transferred to five green and five transparent containers (200CL) each and left opened in a well ventilated laboratory overnight for four weeks. Daily temperature and weekly Hydrogen ion concentration (ph) of the water in each container were taken.
Results: It was observed that mosquitoes oviposited in the ten containers continuously. The two mosquito genera identified were Anopheles and Culex specie using their developmental stages as morphotaxonomic indices. More Anopheles spp (57.2%) oviposited than Culex spp (42.7%) although this was not statistically significant. The polluted water had more Culex specie while the rain water had more Anopheles species with no regard for the colour of the container. Green colour did not serve as a significant cue for oviposition. Packaged water had the least mosquitoes of both species. There were no significant differences in temperature and Ph ranges of all sampled water in both containers.
Conclusion: Mosquito breeding occur right in homes as humans indulge in malariogenic lifestyles. Objects, excavations, plants and anything that can hold water must be eliminated. Water storage containers should always be covered. This work suggests control programmes must put into place preferred breeding sites of mosquitoes. Enforcement of environmental sanitation by cleaning drainages and open gutters around homes will go a long way. Education of the populace on mosquito breeding sites in homes is advocated.
Keywords: Mosquitoes; Anopheles; Culex; Oviposition; Breeding sites; Colour cues