*Corresponding author:Prakash Chandra Gupta, Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Kashi Naresh Government Post Graduate College, Gyanpur, Bhadohi (UP), 221 304- India
*Corresponding author:Anju Verma, Department of Zoology, Kashi Naresh Government Post Graduate College, Gyanpur, Bhadohi (UP), 221 304- India
Received: July 23, 2018; Published: July 31, 2018
To view the Full Article Peer-reviewed Article PDF
Testicular toxicity accounts for about 50% of infertility cases in men. Though, there are several approaches to detect the toxicity, the histopathological study of alterations occurred in the seminiferous tubules appear to be the most accepted, sensitive and direct marker of testicular toxicity. However, an appropriate understanding of the process of spermatogenesis and its hormonal regulation is necessary to employ the histopathological techniques for the evaluation of testicular toxicity. Further, for most accurate evaluation of testicular toxicity, other key reproductive endpoints must also be considered to know the underlying cause and nature of suppression of spermatogenesis. The present article reviews the conventional histopathological and recent biochemical and molecular techniques available as biomarkers to assess the testicular toxicity.
Keywords: Histopathological; Testis; Spermatogenesis; Aromatase; Sertoli cells
Abbreviations: BTB: Blood-Testis Barrier; T: Testosterone; LH: Luteinizing Hormone; FSH: Follicle-Stimulating Hormone; GnRH: Gonadotropins Releasing Hormones; ABP: Androgen-Binding Protein; DHT: Dihydrotestosterone; E2: Estradiol; PRL: Prolactin; LDH: Lactate Dehydrogenase; OS: Oxidative Stress; ROS: Reactive Oxygen Species; LPO: Lipid Peroxidation; StAR: Steroidogenic Acute Regulatory; SCC: Side Chain Cleavage; PCNA: Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen; TUNEL: Terminal Deoxynucleotidyl Transferase dUTP Nick End Labeling; SOD: Superoxide Dismutase; CAT: Catalase; HSD: Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase;