*Corresponding author:Gebremedhin Yohannes, College of Veterinary Medicine, Hawassa University, PO Box 5, Hawassa, Ethiopia
Received: June 18, 2018; Published: June 26, 2018
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Tendons and ligaments are similar dense fibrous connective tissues that connect skeletal muscle to the skeletal elements (bone) and bone to bone, respectively. The main function of ligaments and tendons is to transmit tensile loads. The most commonly damaged tendons and ligaments are those that run down the back of the limbs from the stifle/elbow to the hoof (the superficial digital flexor tendon, the deep digital flexor tendon, the accessory ligaments and the suspensor ligament). The objective of this seminar paper is to review tendon and ligament repair techniques. Most tendon strains are associated with excessive loading and overstretching of the tendon due to excessive physical stress. The end result of tendon and ligament injury is inflammation which manifested in pain, lameness, heat and swelling (typical ‘bowed’ appearance). Ultrasound is an excellent diagnostic tool that allows veterinarian to view the fiber pattern of the tendons and ligaments and determine exactly where the injury has occurred. Surgical and regenerative treatments are important repair techniques for severed tendons and ligaments. The surgical procedure is performed with the animal standing or in lateral recumbency under general anesthesia, local anesthesia or sedation. Regular hoof trimming and proper shoeing should be applied; this will help the animal to keep good conformation and can help to relieve abnormal stress on the animal’s tendons and ligaments.
Keywords: Ligaments, Regenerative treatments, Surgical treatments, Tendons
Abbrevations: AAEP: American Association of Equine Practitioners; AT-MSCs: Adipose Tissue Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells; BM-MSCs: Bone Marrow Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells; ECM: Extra Cellular Matrix; MPCs: Mesenchymal Progenitor Cells; MSCs: Mesenchymal Stem Cells
Abstract| Introduction| Causes, Signs and Diagnosis of Tendon and Ligament Injuries| Surgical Repairs of Severed Tendon and Ligament Desmotomy| Tenotomy| Suture Patterns| Regenerative Treatments of Severed Tendon and Ligament Regenerative Medicine| Stem Cells| Grafts| Conclusion and Recommendations| References|