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Research ArticleOpen Access

Diffuse Reflectance Imaging Differentiates Healing from Non- Healing Wounds in Diabetic Foot Ulcers

Volume 5 - Issue 2

Suset Rodriguez BS1, Jiali Lei BS1, Elizabeth Solis BS1, Katrina Epnere MS1, Francisco Perez Clavijo DPM2, Steven Wigley DPM3 and Anuradha Godavarty PhD*1,

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    • 1Optical Imaging Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Florida International University, Miami, Florida, USA
    • 2Podiatry Care Partners Inc., Doral, Florida, USA
    • 3Wigley Foot and Ankle LLC, North Miami, Florida, USA

    *Corresponding author: Anuradha Godavarty, PhD, Optical Imaging Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Florida International University, Florida, USA

Received: May 28, 2018;   Published: June 07, 2018

DOI: 10.26717/BJSTR.2018.05.001179

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Diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) are the most common of the plethora of complications arising from diabetes. To date, clinicians employ visual inspection of the wound site during its standard 4- week healing process via monitoring of surface epithelization. Herein, a hand-held nearinfrared optical scanner (NIROS) has been developed for non-contact imaging of DFUs and differentiating between healing and non-healing ulcers based on differences in blood flow to the wound and its surroundings. Non-contact near-infrared area imaging of DFUs have been carried to obtain diffuse reflectance images of the wound and its surroundings. These images were used to quantify optical contrasts between the wound and its surroundings. The variability in imaging conditions, analysis and operator dependency were assessed to determine the robustness of the imaging approach. All experimental studies were carried out at two podiatric clinics. Seven healing and three non-healing DFUs were imaged using NIROS. Optical contrast of wound: background was estimated from diffuse reflectance images to differentiate healing from non-healing DFUs. Optical contrast was distinctly different for healing (positive contrast) and non-healing (negative contrast) wounds, independent of the varying imaging and data analysis conditions. The application of a portable hand-held imager to assess the healing or nonhealing nature of DFUs during weekly clinical treatment is significant since physiological changes, as observed using NIROS, manifest prior to visual reduction in wound size during the healing process.

Keywords: Near-infrared imaging; Diabetic foot ulcers; Optical contrast; Diffuse optical imaging; Hand-held; Diffuse reflectance imaging

Abstract| Introduction| Materials and Methods| Results and Discussion| Conclusion| Acknowledgment| References|