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Research ArticleOpen Access

Protective Effect of Long Term Administration of Gum Arabic on Oxidative Stress in Hepatic Tissue of Diabetic Rats

Volume 4 - Issue 5

Mohammed Babiker1,4, Mohammed Elimam Ahamed Mohammed2,3, Mohammed Amanullah*4, Tarig Abbas1 and Mutaz Siddig Dafallah5

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    • 1Faculty of Medicine, University Of Al Neelain, Sudan
    • 2Department of Chemistry, King Khalid University, Saudi Arabia
    • 3Sudan Atomic Energy Commission, Sudan
    • 4Department of Clinical Biochemistry, King Khalid University, Saudi Arabia
    • 5Department of Physiology, King Khalid University, Saudi Arabia

    *Corresponding author: Mohammed Amanullah, Associate Professor, Department of Clinical Biochemistry, College of Medicine, King Khalid University, Greiger, Abha-61431, Saudi Arabia

Received: May 12, 2018;   Published: May 24, 2018

DOI: 10.26717/BJSTR.2018.04.001110

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Activity of key antioxidant enzymes plays a critical role in the induction of hyperglycemia related tissue damage. Gum Arabic (GA) is an edible, dried sticky exudate from Acaciaseyal and Acacia Senegal and is rich with non-viscous soluble fiber. It is commonly used in food industry and pharmaceutical field as an emulsifier and preservative. It has strong antioxidant properties, and used to reduce the experimental nephrotoxicity against gentamicin, cisplatin and to ameliorate cardiotoxicity. However, the effects of GA on oxidative stress in liver of type I diabetic rats have not been reported. Whether GA can change oxidative related genes expression in liver of type I diabetic rat remains less clear. In the present study, we used type I diabetic rat model to investigate our hypothesis that supplementation of GA in drinking water may protect liver by reducing oxidative damage. 60 male Sprague-Dawley rats were housed and Type I diabetes mellitus (DM) was induced by a single intraperitonial injection (i.p.) of stereptozotocin STZ (65 mg/kg).

The rats were anaesthetized with pentobarbital sodium and liver removed and processed for biochemical measurements viz. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) an index of malondialdehyde production and antioxidant enzymes. Key antioxidant enzymes including SOD, CAT and Glutathione of rat liver were measured. The antioxidant activity as a function of oxidative stress in hepatic tissue in the six groups obtained for the levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) in the livers of gum arabic treated group of rats were significantly different when compared to control group Furthermore this was significantly different in rats with DM treated with Insulin and gum Arabic. Diabetic rat group showed significant decreases in all antioxidant enzymes activities when compared to the control. Significant increase of hepatic MDA concentrations in diabetic group compared to the control was observed. Q.PCR was used to measure antioxidant enzymes wherein mRNA expression in the liver was seen. Stereptozotocin induced diabetes caused significant decrease in liver SOD mRNA expression. However, the treatment of GA significantly increased mRNA expression of hepatic SOD compared to diabetic group or those treated with insulin. Furthermore mRNA significantly increased and reached on par with control in diabetes rats treated with insulin and GA. We concluded that the GA treatment reduced lipid peroxidation, improved the activities of antioxidant enzymes and their mRNA expression in the liver of diabetic rats. Thus, GA may be useful in reducing oxidative stress.

Keywords: Diabetes Mellitus, Liver damage, Antioxidants, Gum Arabic

Abbreviations: DM: Diabetes Mellitus, ROS: Reactive Oxygen Species, HSP70: Heat Shock Protein 70, GA: Gum Arabic, NAFLD: Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, TBARS: Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances, SOD: Superoxide Dismutase

Abstract| Introduction| Material and Methods| Results| Discussion| Conclusion| References|