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Review ArticleOpen Access

The Risk of Hepatocellular Carcinoma is increased in Hepatitis C Virus Patients Treated with Interferonfree Direct-acting Antiviral-based Therapy: True or False?

Volume 4 - Issue 5

Ken Sato* and Toshio Uraoka

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    • Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Japan

    *Corresponding author: Ken Sato, Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-39-22 Showamachi, Maebashi, Gunma 371-8511, Japan

Received: May 13, 2018;   Published: May 24, 2018

DOI: 10.26717/BJSTR.2018.04.001106

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Abstract

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major leading cause of chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The recent development of new direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) that are highly effective and well-tolerated has facilitated the achievement of sustained virological response rates in more than 90% of patients with HCV infection, regardless of the stage of liver fibrosis, and is expected to reduce the rate of progression to HCC or risk of waitlist dropout among liver transplant candidates with HCC. However, several studies have raised concerns about the risk of HCC in HCV patients treated with interferon (IFN)-free DAA-based therapy, although other studies have failed to obtain findings supporting these results. These conflicting results prompted us to search for further reliable studies to draw a conclusion about this pivotal issue. This article focuses on the current situation regarding the occurrence and recurrence of HCC in HCV patients treated with IFN-free DAA-based therapy.

Keywords: Hepatocellular carcinoma, Hepatitis C virus, Direct-acting antivirals, Sustained virological response, Occurrence, Recurrence

Abbreviations: AHR: Adjusted Hazard Ratio, CI: Confidential Interval, CT: Computed Tomography, CXCL: (C–X–C motif) Ligand, DAA: Direct- Acting Antiviral, HCC: Hepatocellular Carcinoma, HCV: Hepatitis C Virus, HR: Hazard Ratio, IFN: Interferon, ISGs: Interferon-Stimulated Genes, MRI: Magnetic Resonance Imaging, RFA: Radiofrequency Ablation, RR: Relative Risk, SVR: Sustained Virological Response, TACE: Transcatheter Arterial Chemoembolization, TRAIL: Tumor Necrosis Factor-Related Apoptosis Inducing Ligand, VEGF: Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor

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