*Corresponding author:Francesco Roberto Evola, University of Catania, Via Plebiscito 628, Catania, Italy
Received: February 07, 2018; Published: February 16, 2018
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Idiopathic scoliosis is a complex three-dimensional skeletal disorder with multifactorial etiology frequently encountered in childhood. Idiopathic scoliosis, discovered around 10 years of age or older, is defined as a lateral curvature of the spine in the frontal plane greater than 10 degrees with vertebral rotation in horizontal plane on a standing radiography. True scoliosis is different by false scoliosis. False scoliosis or paramorphism, where the rotation is not present, is caused by different length of the lower limbs, radiculopathy of spine, postural disorders, or inflammation. Clinical examination allows differentiating children with minimally progressive scoliosis from children at high risk for progression of deformity. Curve progress in two-thirds of patients with idiopathic scoliosis before skeletal maturity. Risk factors of curve progression are female gender, time of menarche, age of 10-12 years, thoracic curves, multiple curves, skeletal immaturity and a large curve magnitude . Females have a risk of progression 10 times higher than males. Scoliosis can be diagnosed by the Adam’s forward bend test during physical examination. X-ray examination in orthostatic position allows to measure the inclination angles of the curve using the Cobb method and to assess skeletal growth using Risser grading.
Keywords: Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis; Children; Review