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Research ArticleOpen Access

Characterization of Polyacrylamide Hydroxyapatite (PAHA ) Disc Demineralization Invitro based on Optimized Areal Surface Profiling and Topography Analysis using Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy

Volume 2 - Issue 3

Eun-Jung Lee1,2* and Bo-Hyoung Jin2

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    • 1Department of Food & Nutrition, College of Human Ecology, Seoul National University
    • 2Department of Preventive & Social Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University

    *Corresponding author: Eun-Jung Lee, Department of Food & Nutrition, College of Human Ecology, Seoul National University; Department of Preventive & Social Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, South Korea, Fax-82-2-766-8781; Tel: 82-10-6425-0022; Email:

Received: January 01, 2018;   Published: February 09, 2018

DOI: 10.26717/BJSTR.2018.02.000749

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Objectives: The objective of this study was to characterize the degree of polyacrylamide hydroxyapatite (PAHA) disc demineralization in vitro based on both optimized areal surface profiling and topography analysis using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM).

Methods: A total of 11 test samples were prepared using modified Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) methods. Test sample solution was incubated at 37oC for 150 minutes after inoculation with 1% Streptococcus mutans and radioisotope-labeled polyacrylamide hydroxyapatite (PAHA) discs. The degree of demineralization was measured based on ³²P released from each radioisotope-labeled PAHA disc using CLSM. Image analysis systems (2D and 3D) were used to determine surface topography and roughness.

Results: Sz (maximum height of the surface) showed a significant difference compared to conventional mean height parameters, such as Sa (mean height of the surface) and Sq (root square mean height). Regarding the skewness and kurtosis, distinct demineralization was observed for sponge cake (p < 0.05). While these food samples showed minimal differences in released radioisotope ³²P, a relatively distinct appearance was observed in CLSM.

Conclusions: Affinity with skewness (Ssk) and kurtosis (Sku) illustrated the predominance of peaks and valleys with the presence of inordinate peaks and valleys correspondingly. This study confirmed the feasibility of quantifying PAHA disc demineralization using both optimized areal surface profiling and surface topography analysis.

Keywords: Confocal laser scanning microscopy; Demineralization; Food; Polyacrylamide hydroxyapatite discs; Streptococcus mutans; Topography

Abbreviations: AFM: Atomic Force Microscopy; SEM: Scanning Electron Microscopy; KRIBB: Korea Research Institute Bioscience and Biotechnology; PAHA: Polyacrylamide Hydroxyapatite; CLSM: Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy

Abstract| Introduction| Materials and Methods| Results| Discussion| Conclusion| References|