+1 (720) 414-3554   600 Third Avenue, 2nd floor, New York - 10016, USA
ISSN: 2574 -1241
Impact Factor 0.548

Mini ReviewOpen Access

An Overview on the Use of Enhanced Efficiency Nitrogen Fertilizers in Irrigated Mediterranean Agriculture

Volume 1 - Issue 7

Alexandra Tomaz1,2*, José Ferro Palma1, Isabel Guerreiro1, Maria Isabel Patanita1, José Penacho1, José Dôres1, Maria Natividade Costa1, Elisabete Rosa1 and Manuel Patanita1,2

  • Author Information Open or Close
    • 1Departamento de Biociências, Escola Superior Agrária - Instituto Politécnico de Beja, Portugal
    • 2GeoBioTec, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Portugal

    *Corresponding author: Alexandra Tomaz, PhD, Departamento de Biociências, Escola Superior Agrária - Instituto Politécnico de Beja. R. Pedro Soares S/N, 7800-295 Beja, Portugal; Email:

Received: December 04, 2017;   Published: December 13, 2017

DOI: 10.26717/BJSTR.2017.01.000588

Full Text PDF

To view the Full Article   Peer-reviewed Article PDF


In Mediterranean regions climate change has led to greater inter and intra-annual rainfall irregularity, causing an increase in the demand for irrigation water, inevitably accompanied by an increase in the use of others resources like nitrogen fertilizers. Nitrogen is associated with negative economic and environmental impacts, which requires particularly important decision-making in terms of its application to meet crop needs. The agronomic efficiencies of water and nitro genvary widely among different environments and can be modified due to management practices. However, some studies suggest that agronomic practices alone are not sufficient to entirely avoid nitrogen losses. In irrigated cropping systems, where classical nitrogen fertilizers are partially applied through irrigation water, Enhanced Efficiency Fertilizers (EEF), namely slow release and controlled release products, and nitrification inhibitors, have the potential to reduce nitrogen losses, contributing to higher resource-use efficiencies. This work aims to provide an overview of the possibilities of successfully using this type of fertilizers in irrigated agriculture, especially in Mediterranean climate regions, and the need for research in this field.

Keywords: Irrigation; Fertilization; EEF; WUE; NUE

Abbreviations: Cs: Temperate climate with dry Summer or Mediterranean climate (according to Köppen classification); EEF: Enhanced Efficiency Fertilizers; NUE: Nitrogen Use Efficiency; WUE: Water Use Efficiency

Abstract| Introduction| Acknowledgement| References|