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Pediatric Pes Planus: A Review

Volume 1 - Issue 4

Maria Elena Cucuzza1*, Angela D’ambra1, Giuseppe Evola2 and Francesco Roberto Evola2

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    • 1University of Catania, Pediatric Clinic, Via Plebiscito 626, Catania, Italy
    • 2University Of Catania, Via Plebiscito 626, Catania, Italy

    *Corresponding author: Maria Elena Cucuzza, University of Catania, Via Plebiscito 628, Catania, Italy

Received: September 15, 2017;   Published: September 21, 2017

DOI: 10.26717/BJSTR.2017.01.000381

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Flat foot is a complex three-dimensional skeletal disorder with multifactorial etiology frequently encountered in evolutionary age, and tends to resolve spontaneously in adolescence. Despite the high frequency, there is no precise and universally accepted flat foot definition due to the absence of clinical and radiographic diagnostic criteria [1,2]. From the anatomical point of view it is characterized by: hyperpronation and valgus of the hindfoot (due to the eversion of the subtalar joint); abduction and supination of the forefoot and reduction of the plantar vault. Often the flat foot is associated with brevity of the achilles tendon. Risk factors are joint laxity, male sex, severe kneerotation, and obesity [3]. All children have a flat foot at birth because there is a fat pad at the base of the foot in order to protect the skeletal structures. Normally, flat foot resolves at the age of 10, following the development of the longitudinal medial plantar vault. In some cases it is also found in adulthood. Morley found a flat foot incidence of 97% at 2 years, and 4% after 10 years [4]; Staheli, through a study of 800 patients, reports the same incidence and states that it dramatically reduces between 3 and 6 years [5]. Evans and Harris state that the incidence of flat foot in the adult is respectively 15% and 20% [6].

Keywords: Pes Planus; Children; Management; Review

Abstract| Biomechanical and Classification| Clinical Examination| Diagnostic Exams| Treatment| Conclusion|