*Corresponding author:Muringani B N, Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, National University of science and technology, Zimbabwe
Received: June 28, 2017 Published: July 03, 2017
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Introduction: Gonorrhea is a sexual transmitted infection which is caused by Gram negative bacteria called Neisseria gonorrhoea (gonococcus). N. gonorrhoea is inherently susceptible to most antibiotics, but through continual usage, resistance has emerged. Plants employ antimicrobial activity of phytochemicals as a protection mechanism against pathogens. It is due to this activity that phytochemicals have landed themselves into the medical field as potential solutions to a rapidly increasing drug resistant spawn of microorganisms. There is an increased multiple antimicrobial resistant patterns in N. gonorrhoea due to continual use of specific antibiotics, foreign plasmid acquisition and genetic evolution. Emergence of multidrug resistant strains of the pathogen poses a threat and thus the need to seek alternative medicine.
Objectives: To ascertain the effect of Argemone mexicana plant extract on N. gonorrhoea isolates.
Methodology: Fifty N.gonorrhoea species isolated from patients presenting at a local STI clinic were screened for antibiotic sensitivity using the Kirby bauer disc diffusion method. The isolates which were resistant were then exposed to the extracts of Argemone Mexicana and were analysed as a possible alternative to western medicines.
Results: Antibiotic sensitivity patterns and β-lactamase production was tested on a total of 50 N.gonorrhoea isolates. Ten organisms which presented with β-lactamase resistance were then used to screen for the activity of the plant extract Argemone mexicana. The extracts were from Ethanol, water, chloroform and acetone. Zones of inhibition are as presented in (Table 1). The Ethanolic extracts demonstrated maximum zone of inhibition(15mm).The extract was active against all the examined strains of N.gonorrhoea. The significant antibacterial activity was observed more in ethanolic extacts compared to other tested extracts of the plant. Ethanolic (100%), acetone(48%), Chloroform(34%), and water (31%).
Conclusion: The increased resistance of most of the synthetic drugs and also the increased side effects of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance of microorganisms has led to the research on use of medicinal plants and new plant derived antibiotics without any side effects [1- 3]. The use of natural products as new antibacterial drugs has also been reported by other researchers [2,4,5]. In this study we looked at the effect of A.mexicana on N.gonorrhoea isolates and ethanolic extracts showed more activity on all the strains including the control strain. While chloroform and acetone extracts did not show much activity. There is need for researchers to venture more into alternative medicines as they are cheaper and easily available for the poor communities.