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Research ArticleOpen Access

Monitoring the Anthropogenic and Geochemical Environment Surrounding the Butana (Sudan) Drinking Water Sources Via the Determination of Heavy Metals Composition of the Soil, Streams Sediments and Gold Mining Tailings in the Wet Season (III)

Volume 9 - Issue 4

Younis MH Younis*1, Israa M Idris2 and Abdalla A Elbashir3

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    • 1 Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Medical Sciences and Technology, Sudan
    • 2 Ministry of Minerals, Laboratories Department, Sudan
    • 3 Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, University of Khartoum, Sudan

    *Corresponding author: Younis MH Younis, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Medical Sciences and Technology, Sudan

Received: September 22, 2018;   Published: October 03, 2018

DOI: 10.26717/BJSTR.2018.09.001821

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Further to our previous published papers on the assessment of drinking water quality status of Butana mining sites in the dry season, this current study is conducted to assess the seasonal variations in concentration of the heavy metals during the two major seasons (Dry and Wet seasons) in Butana Mining area, Eastern Sudan, aiming at unveiling the environmental pollution status of the soil, and also aiming at monitoring the anthropological and geochemical environment surroundings the sources of drinking water. To achieve this goal, 31 soil samples, 24 stream sediments and 14 gold mining tailings random sampling were analyzed for the concentration levels of the heavy metals (Ni, Cr, Co, Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd, Mn, Fe and Hg) in the three sampled categories using Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometer 5th generation from GBC. The average concentration levels in the soil samples in Wet season were compared with those levels in the soil samples in Dry season and also compared with those average concentrations reported in most World Soils. Four different geochemical parameters were determined such as: the Enrichment Factor (EF), Geo-accumulation index (I-geo), Contamination factor (CF) and modified degree of contamination results indicated that Butana mining sediments in wet season was unpolluted (Igeo ≤ 0) for Ni, Zn, Cu, Pb and Fe metals, unpolluted to moderately polluted (Igeo = 0-1) for Cr (0.575), Co (0.782) and Mn (0.927), all having and strongly polluted by Cd (3.297) have( Igeo = 3-4), Enrichment factor (EF) show slight contaminated by Ni, Zn, Cu, Pb and Fe, Moderate contaminated by Cr, Co and Mn and very severe contaminated by Cd. The contamination degree (CD) calculations also showed that sediments of Butana mining area in the Wet season were very high contaminated (25.501) by anthropogenic pollution input.

Keywords: Butana Mining Area; Heavy Metals Levels; Wet season; Stream Sediment; Tailings Atomic Absorption Spectrometry; Enrichment Factor; Geo accumulation; Degree of Contamination.

Abbreviations: AMD: Acid Mine Drainage; I-geo: Geo Accumulation Index; EF: Enrichment Factor CF: Contamination Factor; CD: Contamination Degree

Abstract | Introduction | Results and Discussion| Conclusion and Recommendations| Acknowledgement| References|