Climate change impacts, especially rapid-onset events, may result in death, injury, or damage to health through an increase in infectious diseases, physical and mental stress, and the loss of medicinal plants and biodiversity. Women are disproportionately burdened by these processes, but they also can lead adaptation and create more resilient communities. The objective of this review paper is to identify the impact of climate change on women of different age groups. In Ethiopia, All animals including humans are panting, Trees are used to get shade from the burning sun, no need for warmth giving clothes. Irregularly falling rain does not percolate rather erode fertile soils and their seed depriving their re-generation capacity. The reason why poor people are seriously harmed by climate change is that they are mostly dependent on climatesensitive resources. Women in African societies are the backbone of the continent’s labor force, especially in agriculture. African women produce approximately 80 percent of the continent’s food. This is because over 60 percent of employed women in sub-Saharan Africa are agriculturally based. Women’s traditional roles as the primary users and managers of natural resources, primary caregivers, and laborers engaged in unpaid labor mean they are involved in, and dependent on livelihoods and resources that are put most at risk by climate change. But Women can have a more difficult time than men during recovery.<'/'
In Sri Lanka, swimming and tree climbing are taught mainly to boys; this helped males cope better than females when the tsunami hit. Girls interviewed in the Lalibela district of Ethiopia reported the time they spent fetching water increased substantially each day during drought periods. Fetching water could take up to six hours a day, whereas previously it had taken around two hours. This makes it increasingly difficult for girls to go or remain and succeed in school. Yet they are often left out of the discussions and planning on environmental issues even though they may sometimes be in the most appropriate position to overcome their misery. Women should be given priority of access to clean water resources, its utilization, and sanitation coverage. Stakeholders have to provide financial aids equitably; by enhancing women’s income generation sources. Water sources should be developed in the vicinity at least for the women to easily access it. Women should get protection and first-hand services both before and after risks are happening in the ways that equip them to mitigate or adapt the impacts of climate change on water resources. Furthermore, women have to get pieces of training that help them defend violence. Harmful traditional practices depriving women of utilizing water sources have to end. And the unbalanced burden of water collection, provision, and utilization of women has to be shared by each family member. Violence on women has to get due attention. The spirit of care and equitable labor sharing practices has to be developed in developing countries.
Keywords: Climate Change; Women; Ethiopia
Abbreviations: ECA: Economic Commission of Africa; IPCC: Inter-Governmental Panel on Climate Change; Ppm: Parts Per Million; UK: United Kingdom; UNFCCC: United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change; USA EPA: United States of America Environmental Protection Authority; UV: Ultra Violet; WHO: World Health Organization
Climate change is a universal human rights imperative, a global security threat, and a pervasive economic strain. To date, however, much of the focus of international policymakers and institutions has been confined to the arenas of science and the economy (Heike S ). What does gender have to do with climate change? Surely climate change does not discriminate between men and women. First of all, ‘gender’ does not mean exclusively women; but people do (Wambui E ).
Climate is the statistics of weather over long periods. It is measured by assessing the patterns of variation in temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind, precipitation, atmospheric particle count and other meteorological variables in a given region over long periods. Climate differs from weather, in that weather only describes the short-term conditions of these variables in a given region (Wikipedia).
Gender refers not to male or female but too masculine or feminine- a designation that is largely determined by socialization and cultural norms. Perceptions of gender are deeply rooted, vary widely both within and between cultures, and change over time. But in all cultures, gender determines power and resources for females and males. The increasing acceptance and thrust to incorporate ‘gender; has led to the use of such terms as gender roles, gender discrimination, gender equality and gender mainstreaming, among others. Gender subscriptions all determine power and access to resources in most societies. In the context of climate change, there is the recognition that gender affects interactions with, perceptions and the ways and extent to which one is affected (Connect ).
Why are the gender perspectives on climate change becoming a growing issue of concern? The vast majority of academics suggest that women comprise the largest percentage of the world’s poor. It is commonly accepted that climate change exacerbates existing inequalities in both key dimensions: livelihood security, and factors that are fundamental for coping with a change like education and wealth among others (ECA)  . As stated in (Jazmin M ), the research in London by Essex University in between 1981-2002 found that:
1) Natural disasters lower the life expectancy of women more than that of men;
2) The stronger the disaster, the stronger this effect on the gender gap in life expectancy;
3) The higher women’s socio-economic status, the weaker this effect on the gender gap in life expectancy.
Climate Change: The Inter-Governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) defines Climate change as a change in the state of the climate that can be identified (e.g., by using statistical tests) by changes in the mean and/or the variability of its properties, and that persists for an extended period, typically decades or longer (Heike S ). According to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), climate change refers to “a change of climate which is attributed directly or indirectly to human activity that alters the composition of the global atmosphere and which is in addition to natural climate variability observed over comparable periods.” (ECA) .
Climate change is not a neutral process (Heike S ). Climate change is a process that manifests in several ways, including a rise in average temperatures; changes in rainfall patterns leading to floods, droughts, and, in some areas, desertification; extreme and unpredictable weather patterns leading to more numerous and intense natural disasters; and the melting of glaciers and the polar ice-caps, resulting in rising sea-levels and coastal erosion, leaving low-lying areas uninhabitable. Valerie N  and ECA  indicated that Climate change may be due to natural internal processes or external forcing such as modulations of the solar cycles, volcanic eruptions, and persistent anthropogenic changes in the composition of the atmosphere or land use. Policymakers clearly state that it is a fact that the climate is warming and during the past decades the cause has been mainly anthropogenic (Jazmin M ).
Impacts of Climate Change: Climate change impacts, especially rapid-onset events, may result in death, injury, or damage to health through an increase in infectious diseases, physical and mental stress, and the loss of medicinal plants and biodiversity (Mayesha M ). The global effects of climate change will negatively impact communities at multiple levels, threatening the security, economic, and human rights conditions of people around the world (USA EPA ). Women are disproportionately burdened by these processes, but they also can lead adaptation and create more resilient communities (Mayesha M ). Climate change is a global challenge that burdens all of humanity, but not equally (Valerie N ). Most women have healthy pregnancies and healthy babies. However, climate change can worsen environmental hazards that threaten the health of pregnant women and increase health risks for the baby (USA EPA ). As a study in Maruf Kebele of Central Oromiya region in Ethiopia results indicated that farmers had a good understanding and perception of the impacts of climate change at the local level; many negative impacts of the climate irregularity had been identified by the community, like reduced crop yield, heating/drying up of the environment and soil loss affecting natural plant regeneration from the forest soil seed bank, drying up of streams and springs, the disappearance of trees and plants, the rarity of wild animals and increasing pests/diseases. Farmers were observed to diversify their livelihood options as part of responding to irregularities in the local weather and adopting many steps to change agricultural practices (Olika Belachew ). Women and children including old ages are the most vulnerable group of society (ECA) . Hence, as women contribute 80% of the agricultural productivity (Valerie N ) which is the backbone of Ethiopian economy (85%); it is better to identify the impacts of climate change on women of our country and find the ways forward to let them either adapt or mitigate the impacts.
i. To identify the impact of climate change on women of different age groups.
i. To describe climate change patterns.
ii. To identify the cross-cutting issues related to climate change.
iii. To identify the direct and indirect impacts of climate change.
iv. To discriminately illustrate the impacts of climate change on women.
v. To indicate the way forward.
Climate Change Pattern
The climate has been changing (cooling and heating) for millennia; however, it is in recent years (some point out the Industrial Revolution as a key milestone) that human practices, such as the burning of fossil fuels and land-use changes among many other actions, have to lead to anthropogenic climate change (Heike S ). Carbon dioxide is the most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas; in 2005 the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide (379ppm) well exceeded the natural range (180- 300ppm) of the past 650,000 years. The IPCC has a very high degree of confidence that the global average net effect of human activities since 1975 has been one of warming. What is new about anthropogenic climate change, besides its causes, is the speed and scale of change (Jazmin M ). In Ethiopia, All animals including humans are panting including man, Trees are used to get shade from the burning sun No need for warmth giving clothes. Irregularly falling rain does not percolate rather erode fertile soils and their seed depriving their re-generation capacity (Olika Belachew ).
Cross-Cutting Issues Between Climate Change and Women
Poverty: Climate change is superimposed on existing vulnerabilities and thus affects poor people more (Heike S ). It will further reduce access to drinking water; negatively affect the health of poor people to a greater extent by pose a real threat to food security in many countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America (Jazmin M ). The reason why poor people are seriously harmed by climate change is that they are mostly dependent on climatesensitive resources (ECA) . In poor households throughout the world, women go without food for the benefit of their children or male family members. As food prices rise, poor households tend to experience a reduction in the quality or quantity of food they can purchase, with women most likely to make the sacrifice (Connect ). Women in African societies are the backbone of the continent’s labor force, especially in agriculture. African women produce approximately 80 percent of the continent’s food. This is because over 60 percent of employed women in sub-Saharan Africa are agriculturally based. However, in time of the environmental degradation caused by the rapid depletion of natural resources, the economic role played by women to support their household and societal well-being is in jeopardy (Valerie N ). Climate change impacts are likely to be felt most by the rural poor and particularly women in Ethiopia (Olika Belachew ). A study by Nellemann et al. 2011 indicated that organized human trafficking, especially women, is also emerging as a potential risk associated with climate change; which can increase by 20-30% (Jazmin M ).
Culture and Traditional Practices: All decision is made by a masculine view of the problem and its solutions. The participation of women in the whole process (including the decision on climate change impacts) at international, national and local levels is very low (Heike S, ECA [1,4]). Gender roles and gender discrimination not only exacerbate women’s and girls’ exposure to cli¬mate risk but also reduce women’s capacity to accommodate their lifestyle to shifts in weather conditions (Valerie N ). For example, for households dependent on agriculture, the land is the most important productive asset; yet in many parts of the world, women are denied access to and control over land due to discriminatory laws and customs (ECA) . Women’s traditional roles as the primary users and managers of natural resources, primary caregivers, and laborers engaged in unpaid labor mean they are involved in, and dependent on livelihoods and resources that are put most at risk by climate change (Heike S, ECA [1,4]).
A study by the London School of Economics in the UK analyzed disasters in 141 countries and found that boys are likely to receive preferential Women’s and girls’ acute vulnerability in disasters is due to a host of gendered factors, including cultural or religious restrictions on female mobility, as well as differences in the socialization of girls which means they may not be equipped with the same survival skills as their brothers (Connect ). Women in Bangladesh did not leave their houses during floods because it was regarded as culturally inappropriate and that those who did were unable to swim (Connect ). In developing countries “women are already at the receiving end of indoor pollution (Heike S ). Women and girls encounter barriers to accessing healthcare services due to a lack of economic assets to pay for healthcare, as well as cultural restrictions on their mobility, which may prohibit them from traveling to seek healthcare (ECA) . Women and men are affected differently by conflicts. Women bear the responsibility for the survival of the family during and after conflicts. Their workload increases in crises, while their income-generating opportunities decrease simultaneously. Family responsibilities tie women to a particular geographical location and limit their opportunities to migrate. As women make up the majority of the poor, they are least able to adapt to changing conditions or rebuild their livelihoods after destruction. Above all, they are most vulnerable to sexual abuse and sexual violence during wars and natural disasters (Valerie N ).
Women’s Physical Ability: Gender, like poverty, is a crosscutting issue in climate change and needs to be recognized as such (Heike S ). But Women can have a more difficult time than men during recovery. (Jazmin M). In Sri Lanka, swimming and tree climbing are taught mainly to boys; this helped males cope better than females when the tsunami hit (Heike S ). Women made up 55-70% of the Banda Aceh (Indonesia) tsunami deaths, and in the worst affected village Kuala Cangkoy, in the North Aceh district, 80% of the deaths were women. According to BBC News online, of the 2003 French heatwave toll of 15,000, about 70% were women (Jazmin M ). Women’s mortality related to heatwaves is higher than the mortality of men and they are more affected by UV lights than men (Heike S ). Women’s immunity and physical ability are challenged by the burden of multidirectional responsibilities (ECA) .
Policy: Clearly, women and girls have important knowledge and insights to contribute to climate change responses (Connect ). Higher rates of illiteracy among women and girls and lack of access to information on climate change also exacerbate exposure to climate risk (Connect ). Girls interviewed in the Lalibela district of Ethiopia reported the time they spent fetching water increased substantially each day during drought periods. Fetching water could take up to six hours a day, whereas previously it had taken around two hours. This makes it increasingly difficult for girls to go or remain and succeed in school (Connect ). The unfair location of women in the power-holding and decision making hierarchy which enhances susceptibility to climate change has led to the issue being deemed one of justice – gender justice or as some may say, gender injustice (ECA, Jazmin M [4,5]). Women in Sub-Saharan societies make up an estimated 70% of those living below the poverty line (Valerie N ), the one who contribute 80% of agricultural production (ECA)  and a majority of family responsibility (Valerie N ); yet they are often left out of the discussions and planning on environmental issues even though they may sometimes be in the most appropriate position to overcome their misery (Valerie N ).
Direct and Indirect Impacts of Climate Change on Women
There are many direct and indirect ways by which human beings are affected by climate change (Heike S., 2004) (Figure 1).
Impact of Climate Change on Water Resources: Climate change would particularly impact women and girls because of their distinct roles concerning water use. Women and girls generally assume primary responsibility for collecting water for drinking, cooking, washing, hygiene and raising small livestock, while men use water for irrigation or livestock farming and industries (ECA, Jazmin M, et al. [4-6]). These distinct roles mean that women and men often have different needs and priorities in terms of water use. This knowledge is quite significant in the context of climate change (ECA) . In drought-prone areas affected by desertification, for example, the time absorbed by water collection will increase as women and children (mostly girls) will have to travel greater distances (6Km as mentioned in Jazmin M ) to find water (ECA, Valerie N, Mayesha M [4,6,7]); it can take them up to 6hrs. This is time that could be spent in school, earning an income or participating in public life. Walking long distances to fetch water can expose women and girls to harassment or sexual assault, especially in areas of conflict; there are many accounts of women and girls being attacked when searching for water in refugee camps around Darfur. In urban areas, water collection is also an issue as women and girls may spend hours queuing for intermittent water supplies (ECA) .
Impact of Climate Change on atmospheric Pollution: African women are not only victims of natural resource depletion but also pollution to which they can grossly contribute (Valerie N ). Some more facts: An estimated 150,000 deaths were caused in the year 2000 due to climate change. A further 5.5 million healthy years of life were lost worldwide due to debilitating diseases caused by climate change“, revealed a study carried out by WHO in December of 2003. In Europe this past summer, for example, an estimated 20,000 people died due to extremely hot temperatures. During heat waves, excess mortality is greatest in the elderly and women (Heike S ).
Impact of Climate Change on Biodiversity: Britain, climate change could become the greatest threat to biodiversity. The study predicts that the current rate of climate change will lead to the extinction or endangerment of 15-37 percent of the world’s plant and animal species by 2050, the largest mass extinction since the disappearance of the dinosaurs. Global warming is causing such rapid habitat change that thousands of species will simply be unable to adapt; thousands more will be left stranded in small habitat pockets with nowhere else to go (Valerie N ). In general women’s mortality related to heatwaves is higher than the mortality of men (Heike S ). Most of these women depend on wood fuels for cooking. Males in the family help in cutting trees without planting new ones. The problem with this is that deforestation increases the time women continue depending on these trees. Also, the time devoted to searching for wood fuels could be used for other valuable activities, such as watering their vegetables, helping their kids with school homework or simply doing other businesses that could generate some income for their households (Valerie N ). The depletion of forest resources would be exacerbated by climate change and would increase the burden on women to gather fuelwood, food, fodder and medicinal plants. Women and girls would have to walk longer distances and spend more time securing forest resources, thereby reducing the likelihood of their engagement in educational and alternative livelihood opportunities.
Impact of Climate Change on Energy sources: In many developing countries, especially in the poorest areas, most energy currently comes from traditional biomass fuels such as wood, charcoal and agricultural wastes – and collecting and managing these fuels is a strict ‘women’s business’. Linkages between energy supplies and gender roles are strongest in countries with low availability of basic electricity and modern fuels, and a high dependence on biomass fuels for cooking, heating, and lighting. In these countries, especially in Asia and Africa, cultural traditions make women responsible for gathering fuel and providing food, even when this involves long hours of performing heavy physical labor. These activities substantially increase women’s physical burdens, damage their health, and take up time that could otherwise be spent on caring for their families, educating themselves and their children, and engaging in income-generating activities (ECA ). On the contrary, in developing countries the main providers, managers and users of energy in the households are women; however, organizations that make decisions affecting energy policies are male-dominated (Jazmin M ).
Impact of Climate Change on Agricultural Productivity: In some regions of Sub-Saharan Africa, rural women traditionally devote time and effort to the land. As stated earlier herein, women account for approximately 70-80 percent of the agricultural labor force and they produce 60 to 80 percent of the food. Most of these women depend on wood fuels for cooking. Males in the family help in cutting trees without planting new ones. The problem with this is that deforestation increases the time women continue depending on these trees. Also, the time devoted to searching for wood fuels could be used for other valuable activities, such as watering their vegetables, helping their kids with school homework or simply doing other businesses that could generate some income for their households (Valerie N ).
Conclusion and Recommendations
Women should be given priority of access to clean water resources, its utilization, and sanitation coverage (Jazmin M, et al. [4,5,7]). Stakeholders have to provide financial aids equitably; by enhancing women’s income generation sources. Water sources should be developed in the vicinity at least for the women to easily access it. Women should get protection and first-hand services both before and after risks are happening in the ways that equip them to mitigate or adapt the impacts of climate change on water resources. Furthermore, women have to get pieces of training that help them defend violence. Harmful traditional practices depriving women of utilizing water sources have to end. And the unbalanced burden of water collection, provision, and utilization of women has to be shared by each family member. Violence on women has to get due attention (ECA) . The spirit of care and equitable labor sharing practices has to be developed in developing countries (Mayesha M ). The human rights (women’s rights) dimension of water is recognized and respected, as water is indispensable for leading a healthy life in human dignity. In this context, ethics should guide water resources management, including for water supply and sanitation; (ECA) . Women and gender experts are consulted and are involved in decision-making in the water sector and the design and management of water and sanitation policies and programs. Policies and programmers must draw on the existing body of knowledge on gender and water, to inform interventions; A gender perspective, which seeks to include an understanding of gender roles and relations and how these affect and are affected by water and sanitation interventions, is mainstreamed into adaptation options; Local water sources are provided to free up time for women to engage in income-generating activities, by reducing the time required to fetch water and making domestic tasks faster to complete, as well as to impact positively on school attendance. Actual and potential risks of attacks on women and girls, who are obliged to walk long distances in search of water are highlighted in decision-making and planning processes to come up with strategies that prevent these dangers, and to justify the costs associated with the provision of local water supplies. Awareness has to be given about all the above issues by providing need-based pieces of training for the respective community members. Access to education for women should be easy and get priority (Jazmin M ). Women have better indigenous knowledge for adaptation to climate change; utilization of this knowledge and mainstreaming in the curriculum is crucial (Mayesha M ).
Women should get adequate income sources (eg. Carbon trading, green business, etc) and access to resources that help them adapt to the challenges of atmospheric pollution and hence climate change. Women should get adequate nutrition enabling them to withstand the dangers of air pollution. Women are the most victims of indoor air pollution; adequate, adaptation mechanisms have to be available (Valerie N ). Family members have to share equal responsibility in waste management procedures (Valerie N ) and household activities that could put women in danger (ECA) . Climate change is fundamentally an issue of human dignity, and is, therefore, inseparable from human Rights (Mayesha M ); due attention has to be paid for women. Women play a great role in maintaining biodiversity; there should be financial supports and income generation mechanisms from this activity (Valerie N ). Home garden crops such as Enset or false banana, potato, carrot, beetroot, cabbage, garlic, shallot, onion, sweet potato and sugar cane (for chewing) are managed by the women, now have a high contribution to the household income (Olika Belachew ). Only during recent years, many women folks also adopting growing wild/semi-wild herbal spices in their home gardens for marketing. Another important component in the traditional system gaining importance during recent years was identified as home/ agro-forestry—a very wide range of plant types for diverse uses getting prominence like guava and mango for marketing and home consumption; also an array of domestic animals are increasing especially chicken with higher market prices of eggs and live birds (Olika Belachew ) traditional articles made by women from selected grass species also contribute to homestead income (Olika Belachew ).
Women’s abilities are recognized and are incorporated into disaster relief efforts to change gendered roles and perception of rights; and that (ECA) . Women have to get adequate protection in physical or physiological happenings that put them in danger Culture. Cultural or traditional practices that put women in danger have to come to an end. Gender-specific disaster reduction policies are formulated to address the effects of climate change in disasterprone areas, as well as pragmatic national and international interventions to ensure food, energy, and water security, economic resilience and security of place/habitat, particularly for poor and migrating women and their families (ECA) . Amendments have to be made in traditional practices that hinder women from defending themselves from natural hazards including freedom of migration (Senay Habtezion ). Women have to get adequate access to sources of information (Senay Habtezion ). There has to be adequate and indiscriminate data concerning women’s exposure, risk, and defense mechanism towards natural disasters (Senay Habtezion ). A gender-based approach to the study and analysis of climate change and natural disasters is conducted, and that research is supported by sex-disaggregated data (ECA) . Has to be involved in policy formulation and decision making forums (Senay Habtezion ).
Women’s empowerment is provided through the capacity building before, during and after climate-related disasters, as well as through their active involvement in disaster anticipation, early warning, and prevention, being part of their resilience building (ECA) . Institutional capacity to mainstream gender in global and national climate change and Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) policies and operations, is enhanced through the development of gender policies, gender awareness, gender capacity and expertise, and the development and application of relevant mechanisms and tools (ECA) . Women, including those from poor rural villages, are more involved in making energy decisions and plans. Energy policies and interventions should recognize women’s roles in the energy sector and build on their expertise and influence, to effectively promote sustainable economic and social progress. Greater attention is paid to gender in energy investments and initiatives to involve women more in the energy sector and different ways so that they can manage their energy supplies, their businesses, and their lives more effectively and productively. Investments are made in improved fuels and equipment, as much as in access to electricity.
In this regard, women should be engaged at a higher level in the dissemination of new energy technologies and in the effective management of natural resources. Women are empowered to benefit from lucrative projects under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). The introduction of the programme of activities (PoA) under the CDM is expected to greatly enhance the opportunities for African countries to access the CDM. The programmatic CDM aims to aggregate geographically dispersed activities that would have been difficult to undertake as traditional, stand-alone CDM projects. Potential activities include: Off-grid renewable energy projects, such as run-of-river hydro and wind power, the use of biomass residues, capturing methane emissions from landfill dumps or animal waste for electricity generation. These can play a valuable role in bringing energy to rural communities and stimulating rural industries. Energy efficiency projects that can save individuals and organizations money and generate additional revenues in the form of CDM carbon credits. This includes mitigating carbon emissions by using fuel-efficient cookstoves and solar water heaters for domestic purposes, and the installation of compact fluorescent light bulbs in public sector offices.
The dependence on rain-fed agriculture has to be shifted in the way enabling the women to improve their productivity and income generation mechanisms (Valerie N ). Priority should be given to women in agroforestry processing and land ownership (Valerie N ). Women should have adequate time and responsibility in their household as well as outside. Women should not be restricted in expenditures for food and other household matters (Valerie N ). As farming alone often cannot sustain rural families, the off-farm economy is an increasingly important source of household income (Valerie N ). Should get adequate time for training and education (Valerie N ). Women of Sub-Saharan rural women do not have equal access to employment opportunities. Women should get adequate protection from physical, chemical or other hazardous situations facing from their role in agricultural activities (Valerie N ). Women have to get priority in credit services. Should get adequate training on modern agricultural productions (Valerie N ). African women through training by sensitizing them on issues related to climate change, such as building up their resilience, teaching them how to harvest rainwater, maintaining their land, modern farming (e.g., Till or no-till the soil), composting versus burning dry grass, landfilling with waste, cutting and planting trees, etc. (Valerie N ). Women should get priority in facilities and services important in disasters and gender-based violence [11-14].
Climate change as a human security issue is researched and integrated into human rights frameworks, mechanisms, and legislation, including UN Resolution 1325, which calls for greater participation of women in all aspects of conflict prevention, resolution, and management, including peace-building. Women fully participate and contribute to decision-making and leadership related to the nexus of climate change and conflict to ensure effective and socially-just climate change interventions and the prevention of related conflicts. This should include climate change mitigation and adaptation, natural resources management, conflict prevention, management, and peacebuilding. Awareness on the links between climate change, conflict, and their gender dimension is increased, that conflict is integrated into climate change adaptation taking into account that women and men would be impacted differently and that the international community learns from recent events that demonstrate how women are disproportionately affected during conflict and post-conflict situations. Early warning systems are comprehensive, involve women and take into account their concerns, to ensure that timely measures, such as mediation and preventive diplomacy, can be undertaken to avert violent crises. Since many causes of conflict, including inequality and exclusionary politics, have their roots in weak governance, measures to prevent conflict and its recurrence have a better hence of succeeding if they are accompanied by actions promoting effective, inclusive and legitimate governance (including climate governance at all levels) that adequately involves women and youth and effectively address their concerns.
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