Introduction: A healthy nutrition and regular physical activity have both preventive and curative effects for many diseases. Today, obesity and numerous diseases can be prevented by healthy nutrition and regular physical activity, and the quality of life of individuals can be increased.
Methods: In the search for scientific literature related to this review, the US National Library of Medicine (PubMed) used MEDLINE and Sport to discuss data and the terms ‘nutrition’, ‘regular exercise’, and ‘longevity and life expectancy were used. The relevant literature has also taken its source from the research of relevant articles from reference lists derived from data studies.
Result: The importance of regular exercise and healthy eating habits for a healthy life is better understood day by day and these healthy lifestyle habits presupposed to extend life expectancy. So it’s known that regular exercise and healthy nutrition are important factors for physical and mental wellness by preventing man’s causes of most chronic diseases.
Conclusion: Natural and healthy diet and regular physical activity reduce the risk of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular (cardiovascular system) disease, obesity, hypertension, diabetes, depression, osteoporosis, and other chronic diseases, so a balanced diet and regular exercise are essential for a healthy life, should be considered as extremely important concepts.
Keywords: Healthy Nutrition; Regular Exercise; Longevity; Life Expectancy
According to the World Health Organization (2017), being healthy is not defined as the absence of disease, but as a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being . In this description, it is seen that health is considered to be multifactorial and well-being is underlined. It is not always possible or easy to be healthy in all areas of life due to hereditary and environmental factors, but it is emphasized that healthy living habits can be preventive for diseases . Behaviors that serve to protect and increase the well-being of individuals are defined as healthy lifestyle behaviors . These behaviors include responsibilities such as adequate and balanced eating habits, stress management, regular physical activity, cognitive development, and sociological development . To live a healthy life and to minimize the health risks that may occur in aging, the main factors are nutrition and physical activity  emphasize that inadequate exercise or inactive life is a real cause of chronic diseases and death. Physical inactivity has been associated with the development of 40 chronic diseases and premature death, including major non-communicable diseases such as type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease . Blair et al. 1989 stated that cardiorespiratory condition, generally measured by maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max), is an important determinant of health. , showed in exercise tests that for every 1 metabolic equivalent increase, there is a 12% improvement in survival.
Exercise improves multiple factors that affect VO2max, including oxygen-carrying capacity, oxygen diffusion to working muscles, and adenosine triphosphate production . Another main component of a healthy life is nutrition. A healthy diet with the appropriate balance of nutrients can prevent or delay the development and complications of not only common chronic diseases such as diabetes, high blood pressure, heart disease, and cancer but also diseases . Healthy aging, maintenance of function, immunity, and healing are supported by a high-quality diet that meets micronutrients (vitamin C, A, D, E, and K; zinc; folate; calcium; iron; and B vitamins) and macronutrients (protein, carbohydrate, and fat) requirements . No single food contains all the nutrients the body needs. There are different types of nutrients in each of the foods that have different properties and have different functions in body functioning [11- 13]. For optimal nutrition, it is necessary to take these nutrients in certain proportions [14,11-13]. The ratios of these nutrients in the diet affect each other’s absorption, metabolism, and requirement [11-13]. In addition, the foods consumed for optimal nutrition do not only contain essential nutrients, but also contain bioactive components called phytochemicals, which are effective in the protection and development of health and the prevention of dietrelated chronic diseases [15-17].
Many studies aiming to reveal the importance of exercise for a healthy life have focused on improving health and increasing physical activity. A study of healthy community-dwelling older adults showed that seven to twelve months of regular exercise was associated with changes in self-efficacy and cognitive mediators, and these gains were associated with regular exercise . In another study, self-efficacy was increased for those who completed an exercise prescription scheme, but not for those who left without completing a regular exercise prescription . It has been concluded that positive changes can be achieved on health parameters through the nutrition education program conducted to improve the life health of CVD high-risk groups in socio-economically deprived regions . Since it’s observed that in the school-age and pre-adolescent period, overweight and obesity tends to increase more frequently, it should be important for individuals in this age group to develop healthy living habits together with regular physical activity and healthy nutrition education [21-23].
The most important point to be emphasized about the concept of healthy life is health; not only the absence of illness and disability but also the fact that one lives in a state of complete well-being from a physical, psychological and social point of view. Being healthy all your life is everyone’s dream. In line with this goal, many factors can be mentioned in life to maintain health and become healthier, but among all these factors, a natural and balanced diet and physical activity are of great importance for a healthy life. With a better understanding of the importance and necessity of physical activity for health all over the world, a more active lifestyle and regular exercise have been adopted by the people. With the adoption of an active lifestyle shaped by physical activity, the chances of healthy aging will increase thanks to the preservation and improvement of the physical and psychological health of people of all ages. And with a natural and balanced diet, it is possible to provide all the nutrients necessary for the efficient and effective functioning of the whole body. And also, it is known that in the presence of a balanced diet, the body will be more resistant to all kinds of disease-causing factors, infections, chronic fatigue, and metabolic performance losses and a decrease in the incidence of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, diabetes, depression, osteoporosis will be observed. And so it will be possible to increase the chances of a long and healthy life in the presence of healthy nutrition and regular exercise.
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