The article discusses the issues of health preservation of children and adolescents who find themselves in emergency situations and during the rehabilitation period by using the main components of a healthy lifestyle: active motor regime, personal and public hygiene, adherence to the daily routine, prevention of injuries and bad habits adherence to psychohygiene of interpersonal relationships and others.
Keywords: Health; Children; Adolescents; Natural Disasters; Earthquakes; Mudflow; Flood; Healthy Lifestyle
As we know, the 21st century is characterized by environmental instability, the emergency of various natural catalysis of natural disasters, leading to emergencies in which various layers of violence may find themselves, including children and adolescents, who are subject to trauma, psychological stress and other disorders of the normal functioning of the body, physical or mental health. In recent year, in Uzbekistan such natural disasters as earthquakes, floods, mudflows, hurricanes, landslides and others have been quite often observed and people very often may find themselves in the focus of these disasters and be exposed to factors leading to health problems, which actualizes the problem of in emergency situations, which dictates the need to implement state policy in this direction . Analysis of the literature and gained practice indicates that at the time of onset of an emergency situation, any person is primarily exposed to stress, which is most pronounced in children.
Stress – the state of stress, the projected set of protective physiological reactions that arise in the human body in response to the influence of unfavorable factors – cold, starvation, mental and physical injuries, leading to health problems. In particular, this may be accompanied by damage to certain organs, requiring first aid (bleeding, fractures, dislocations, concussion, etc.), as well as the emergence of a feeling of fear - negative emotional states that appear when the victim receives information about a possible threat his life well-being, health, about real or imagined danger . A child of any age is in need of the help of parents or other adults who are called upon to calm down children and provide first aid, which is the beginning of a person’s health-saving activity: the formation of the extreme competence of parents who implement the following types of assistance: relieve the victim of the influence of an irritating factor (relieve the weight of a tree or bricks that has fallen on him, clear the respiratory tract of blood, mucus, foreign bodies and help to take a comfortable posture for the victim).
At the same time, the victims need help to maintain mental health in the outbreak of extreme situations in accordance with the developed recommendations for survival in emergencies and the use of first aid methods for victims . This problem was the subject of a special study by Yu. S. Shougu, who noted that emergency psychological assistance, being a means of psychological health preservation, depends on the nature, scale, suddenness, duration, stage of emergency, climatic and meteorological features of the situation composition and ethnic characteristics of victims, degree of involvement in emergency situations, state of somatic and mental health of persons caught in the lesion focus . According to the author, the level of organization and consistency of actions of the relevant services and activity as agreed by the participants in the elimination of the consequences of emergencies, the activities of information channels covering emergency rescue operations are all important factors influencing the prevalence and severity of psychogenic consequences of emergencies. At the same time, psychological assistance should be provided and after an emergency during the rehabilitation period of victims who are still in a post-stress state for a long time.
Children and adolescents who find themselves in the outbreak
of emergencies also need the help of medical and social workers
who are called upon to help maintain somatic health. People who
find themselves at the scene of crisis situation are called upon to
aid in meeting their primary needs: provide food, water and shelter
and create sanitary facilities. It was established that victims who
received timely social support after the crisis cope better with
difficulties than where, who did not receive it, since social support
which is part of the provision of first medical and psychological
aid, also consist in providing support to family members, not to
separate children from their parents, facilitate bonding with friends
and family who can support them. At the same time hypothermia of
children should be prevented and their safety should be ensured,
protecting them from loud noise and chaos, that is, to create at
optimal psych hygienic environment to preserve the physical
health of the children, including promoting compliance with all
regime moments of the day and performing the necessary healthpreserving
procedures, creating conditions for games and rest. The
literature provides data on the consequences of psycho traumas
arising in children and adolescents as a result of catastrophes and
natural disasters, accompanied by the following violations:
a) Sleep disturbance
b) Communication disorders with peers and parents, difficulties in separation (the desire to constantly be close to parents, sleep with them, etc.)
c) Decreased ability to concentrate, difficulty concentrating on schoolwork, temporary loss of previous skills
d) Obsessive thoughts
e) Increased alertness and suspicion
f) Loss of life prospects
an increase in the level of anxiety up to attacks of panic behavior . In these conditions, in order to preserve the mental health of the affected children, it is very important to use physical and recreational technologies:
a) Physical education minutes
b) Dynamic pauses
c) Breathing exercise
d) Gymnastics for the eyes
f) Massage of active points .
In such way, realizing that the main consequences for children in emergencies encountered in the conditions of Uzbekistan are accompanied by the influence of disturbing environmental factors on the physical and mental health of children and adolescents, everyone around and, first of all, parents, need to be ready to provide first aid and possess health-preserving competencies developed and acquired in a previous life. This dictates the necessity of conducting appropriate trainings and seminars, during which the violence acquires the necessary knowledge, skills and abilities to behave in extreme conditions that have arisen in connection with an emergency.
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