Tuberculosis is an obstacle to public health worldwide, especially in low and middleincome countries such as Brazil. It is caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmitted by air through aerosols expelled by infected individuals, mainly with active lung disease. The lung is the most affected organ and the most common signs and symptoms are persistent dry or productive cough, night sweats, afternoon fever and weight loss. Its diagnosis occurs through the confirmation of laboratory tests, mainly sputum smear microscopy, a fast and inexpensive test. Bacillus culture is the gold standard diagnostic test, but its result takes longer. The treatment lasts for six months or more (drug resistant cases) and consists of a combination of drugs administered orally. Oral manifestations of tuberculosis are uncommon, preferentially located on the tongue, as an irregular hardened ulcer with an edematous base. HIV-Tuberculosis co-infection causes greater bacterial resistance to treatment, more occurrence of drug interactions and higher patient mortality.
Keywords: Tuberculosis; Pulmonary; Oral; HIV infections
Introduction and Review
Tuberculosis (TB) is a bacterial infectious disease, caused by
Mycobacterium tuberculosis, considered the most deadly infectious
disease in adults, being among the top 10 causes of death in the
world . In 2019, it is estimated 10 million people were infected
and 1.2 million died from the disease worldwide . However, in
the first half of 2020, there was a 25-30% decrease in the number
of reported TB cases, when compared to the same period in 2019.
This was one of the impacts of the Covid-19 pandemic, which led
to a decrease in detection cases, the concentration of financial
resources and data collection, with delay in the goals and measures
to be taken .
TB is related to poverty, poor sanitary conditions and poor structure and effectiveness of health control programs and services in underdeveloped countries, reflecting their inequality [4,5]. In America, Brazil is one of the most affected countries by TB, being among the 30 countries with the highest burden of disease and HIVTB co-infection . In 2018, 72,788 new cases and 4,490 deaths were recorded in Brazil, with an incidence coefficient of 34.8 cases per 100,000 inhabitants and a mortality coefficient of 2.2 deaths per 100,000 inhabitants [5,7]. In 2019, the number of new cases reached 96,000, which 11.4% were related to HIV-TB co-infection. 6,700 deaths were recorded, with a mortality rate of 3.17 per 100,000 inhabitants . M. tuberculosis affects mainly young male adults. The main form of transmission occurs through the airways, in contact with aerosols produced by the speech, sneeze or cough of contaminated people .
Tb Types / Stages
After the first contact with M. tuberculosis (Primary TB), it
usually lodges in the lung and the infection progresses to a latent
state (TB infection), or it can progress acutely (TB disease), which
rarely occurs. During the latency period, patients are asymptomatic,
and the bacillus is inactive in the lung. In the latency stage, only about 10 to 15% of those infected develop the clinical signs and symptoms
(TB disease) at some point in life, which usually occurs after two
years from the infection. That percentage increases if the patient
is immunologically compromised. In case of an immunological
fail, the bacterium is reactivated and the patient shows signs and
symptoms (post-primary or Secondary TB), initiating the active
stage of the disease (TB disease). Most of the time, Secondary TB
manifests in the lung (Pulmonary TB), but it can also affect other
sites (Extrapulmonary TB). Active TB infection is the period of
greatest disease transmission, as the bacterium multiplies in an
unrestrained manner and the patient eliminates bacilli through
sputum (bacilliferous patient), increasing the contagion [5,8,9].
Pulmonary TB is the most prevalent type and affects
primarily the lung, and when it affects other locations, it is called
Extrapulmonary TB [4,5]. Primary pulmonary TB is more common
in children, being less infectious and secondary pulmonary TB
(post-primary) predominates in adolescents and young adults.
Commonly, persistent dry or productive cough (more than two
weeks), night sweats, afternoon fever (above 38°C) without chills,
and weight loss, are common signs and symptoms. The severe form
of Pulmonary TB is called Miliary Tuberculosis and it is common
in immunocompromised patients ocurring when M. tuberculosis
spread acutely in the bloodstream (bacteremia) [5,8].
Another serious form is Meningoencephalic TB, which occurs when bacterial spread reaches the brain, accounting for 3% of HIVnegative cases and 10% of extrapulmonary HIV-TB cases positive [5,8]. The extrapulmonary forms are mainly paubacillary, being less infectious. They present symptomatology according to the affected organ, being Pleural TB the most common form in nonimmunocompromised patients. Peripheral ganglionary (lymph node) TB is the most frequent form of Extrapulmonary TB in children and in HIV-positive patients. Other forms are: pericardic TB, bone TB and tuberculous pleural empyema, which is a rupture of a tuberculous cavity into the pleural space .
Oral Manifestations of Tb
Oral TB is a rare type of Extrapulmonary TB, corresponding
to 0.1-5% of TB infections. Oral TB can be primary (when the first
infection occurs in the mouth, by direct inoculation - close contact
with the infected individual who is expectorating bacilli, such as
kisses, mouth-to-mouth breathing or even aerosols for dental
treatment) or secondary [10,11], resulting from the spread of the
M. tuberculosis, usually by hematogenous or lymphatic routes, and
by direct autoinoculation, in which the individual expectorates the
Mycobacterium and it penetrates in favorable oral exposed areas,
such as alveolus after tooth extraction and ulcerated or fissured
areas of that individual [12,13].
In children and adolescents, primary lesions are usually found in gums, inflammed areas or tooth extraction sites and they are associated with cervical lymphadenopathy. Secondary lesions are more common in older people and affects mainly the tongue [10,11]. It presents as an irregular hardened ulcer, poorly defined with a granular and swollen base [12,14,15]. Oral TB always must be considered when the lesions do not respond to therapy with conventional antibiotics and anti-inflammatory drugs . However, clinical diagnosis is nonspecific and similar to other manifestations, requiring a carefully anamnesis (detailing the patient’s history), and a complete physical examination, biopsy and chest radiographic exam to confirm the diagnosis [13,14].
HIV-TB co-infection is the leading cause of death in HIVpositives, who are 19 times more likely to develop TB . Humoral immunity is compromised, impairing the action of antibodies, making HIV-positives more susceptible to the progression of TB . Worldwide, the HIV-TB co-infection rate represented 208,000 of TB deaths in 2019. The co-infection rate reached 11.4% of new cases, and only 47.5% of these patients had access to antiretroviral treatment [2,7]. Co-treatment HIV-TB should be established, with concern for drug interaction and tolerance of the infected patient. Delayed diagnosis can lead to multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, increasing the mortality [8,15]. In HIV-TB patient, sputum tests and Mycobacterial culture should also be ordered. However, the molecular tests of nucleic acid amplification provide a quicker diagnosis [5,15]. Among these tests, the most widely used is GeneXpert MTB/RIF (Cepheid, USA), an automated real-time PCR system that amplifies a gene from a specific Mycobacterium sequence. It identifies the bacterium and the mutations caused by rifampicin, being recommended for the initial diagnosis of adults and children, of HIV-TB co-infection and TB resistant to rifampicin [17,18]. Furthermore, the HIV detection test is recommended for all diagnosed TB patients or those with negative smear tests .
Some confirmatory tests are performed to determine the
diagnosis of TB, since there is not a single test with the necessary
sensitivity and specificity [8,13]. In latency stage, patients are
asymptomatic and to identify infected individuals, the tuberculin
skin test (purified protein derivative- PPD) and the serological test
for gamma interferon-release are applied . However, serological
tests have low sensitivity and specificity . A positive PPD result
indicates only TB infection and it is not sufficient for the diagnosis
of active disease. It consists of the intradermal application of
tuberculin with reading after 72 to 96 hours. If the diameter of the
hardened area is greater than 10mm, it indicates previous contact with M. tuberculosis or the individual has been vaccinated with
Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) in the last two years and may be sick
or not .
In the active form of the disease, the most common test is the direct microscopic examination, known as sputum smear microscopy, as it is an easy, fast, inexpensive and highly specific method. It uses Ziehl-Nielsen staining, which allows the identification of the acidresistant bacillus (BAAR). This method is responsible for 70-80% detection of pulmonary TB, with the collection of two sputum samples with a result within 48 hours [5,21,22]. However, it has low sensitivity in patients HIV-TB co-infected . Extrapulmonary TB has a lower bacterial load, which reduces sensitivity in the sputum test. Thus, it is highly recommended to perform a biopsy to investigate all extrapulmonary forms, or even needle aspiration cytology to obtain the diagnosis .
Culture for Mycobacteria with antimicrobial susceptibility testing is the gold standard for TB diagnosis, with high sensitivity and specificity. The culture identifies the Mycobacterium and the sensitivity test distinguishes whether it is a tuberculous Mycobacterium. Culture is recommended for all suspected cases, regardless of the result of sputum smear microscopy and the rapid molecular tests for TB (RMT-TB). The culture result is obtained after a few weeks [5,21]. Regardless of the other tests results carried out, culture for Mycobacterium is always indicated, with an antimicrobial sensitivity test [5,24]. Another available method is the rapid molecular test for TB (RMT-TB), which, using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique, detects the DNA of M. tuberculosis and also strains resistant to rifampicin in sputum samples. The test result is obtained in two hours, in addition to presenting greater sensitivity in sputum samples than sputum smear microscopy. It is indicated for the diagnosis of new cases of pulmonary and laryngeal TB in adults and adolescents .
In addition, for patients with suspected pulmonary TB, a chest X-ray is requested to rule out another lung disease, and also to assess the extent and evolution of the case during the treatment, as well as the existence of a residual infection. A computed tomography scan of the chest may also be requested [5,24].
The prevention against the complications of TB is done through the Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine, preventing meningeal and miliary tuberculosis, the most severe forms of the disease. The vaccine should preferably be applied within the first 12 hours after birth and it is contraindicated for HIV children up to five years and when they weigh less than 2kg [5,25]. However, BCG has variable efficacy, being more effective in prevention of children, especially newborns, not showing the same results in adults against pulmonary TB. The vaccine is more effective in immunologically immature individuals, who have not had any contact with M. tuberculosis, or any other Mycobacteria [5,26].
The treatment is currently guided by the supervised treatment strategy (Directly observed treatment short-course-DOTS), which follows the basic scheme of short duration (about six months), using drugs with combined fixed dose (CFD) . Therapy is performed orally and combines drugs to prevent bacterial resistance, through a basic scheme that consists of two phases: intensive, lasting two months, combining rifampicin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide and ethambutol, known as the RHZE regimen. The second phase (maintenance) lasts four months and uses the rifampicin and isoniazid regimen (RH regimen). The regimen depends on the patient weight and it is used for all patients above 10 years old [5,8,27]. Patients HIV-TB follow the same treatment regimen. However, in these patients it is more frequent adverse reactions as treatment interruption, disease recurrence and risk of drug interactions. TB treatment must be started first and depending on the immunosuppression (TCD4 lymphocyte count) of the individual, antiretroviral therapy is instituted. If the TCD4 cell count is less than 50/mm3 (advanced immunosuppression), therapy should start as early as the second week after the TB treatment. However, when the count is TCD4 ≥50/mm3, treatment can be performed at the end of the intensive TB treatment phase, around the eighth week [5,28].
Young adult men are the most affected by the TB. After primary
infection in the lung, the bacilli remain latent and in a patient’s
immune suppression, the bacterium is reactivated, appearing signs
and symptoms (secondary TB) and it initiates the active stage (TB
disease). It is a period of greatest transmissibility of the disease,
as the bacteria begins to multiply and the patient eliminates
bacilli through sputum [5,8,9]. The main signs and symptoms are
moderate fever (in the afternoon), cough, weight loss and night
sweats . The most test used for the diagnosis is the direct
sputum smear microscopy, as it is cheap, quick and easy test. It is
responsible for the detection of 70-80% of pulmonary TB, the most
common manifestation of the disease [5,21,22]. Extrapulmonary
TB has a lower bacterial load, which decreases the sensitivity of
sputum smear microscopy. Thus, biopsy or fine needle aspiration is
indicated . However, culture for Mycobacteria with antimicrobial
susceptibility testing is the most specific and sensitive method,
being the gold standard for diagnosing TB [5,21]. Chest radiography
should also be requested for patients with suspected pulmonary
TB, to rule out another lung disease and to assess the evolution
during the treatment, as well as the existence of a residual infection
[5,25]. The rapid molecular test for TB (TRM-TB) detects bacterial DNA and strains resistant to rifampicin, in sputum samples. The
result is obtained in two hours, and it is more sensitive than sputum
smear microscopy .
In order to avoid the appearance of the most severe forms of TB (meningeal and miliary tuberculosis), the BCG vaccine should be applied, preferably, in the first 12 hours of the baby’s birth. In Brazil, this vaccine is recommended for children under five years old and is contraindicated for children with HIV [5,26]. BCG is more effective in individuals who have not any contact with M. tuberculosis or other mycobacterial organisms [5,27]. The TB treatment consists of a sixmonth regimen that uses drugs with a fixed dose (CFD) supervised on an outpatient basis. Initially, the oral administration of the RHZE scheme in an intensive phase (two months) takes place and then, in the maintenance phase (four months), the RH scheme is used, and doses adjusted according the patient’s weight [5,8,27]. Patients HIV-TB follow the same treatment, but they have more adverse reactions, with greater chances of discontinuing treatment. In those patients, TB treatment should be started first and, depending on the degree of immunosuppression, antiretroviral therapy is instituted in the second or eighth week from the beginning of TB treatment [5,28,29].
The main cause of death of HIV-positive patient is due to coinfection with TB . Brazil is one of the countries with the highest burden of disease and HIV-TB co-infection [5,6]. In 2019, the number of new cases in Brazil reached 96,000, with 11.4% of new cases related to HIV-TB co-infection and a mortality rate of 3.17 per 100,000 inhabitants . Less than half of HIV-TB patients had access to antiretroviral with TB treatments [2,7]. The early diagnosis of TB in co-infected patients is important, since the delay in diagnosis can lead to multidrug-resistant TB, increasing the mortality chance [2,8]. If bacilloscopy and mycobacterial culture tests show false negative results , molecular PCR tests should provide quick diagnosis [2,5]. Among these tests, the most widely used is Xpert MTB/RIF, an automated real-time PCR system that amplifies a gene from a specific Mycobacterium sequence. In this way, it identifies the bacterium and also the mutations caused by rifampicin. This test is recommended for the initial diagnosis of HIV-TB co-infection and rifampicin-resistant TB in adults and children [18,19]. In addition, the HIV detection test is recommended for all patients with diagnosed TB or those with negative sputum smear tests .
The cause of premature rupture of membranes at the limit of
fetal viability (after 24 weeks of gestational age) is varied, having
as risk factors cervical incompetence, the use of cerclage, tobacco
consumption, history of preterm delivery and / or rupture of
membranes in previous pregnancies, decreased body mass index,
low socioeconomic status, presence of bleeding in the second and
third trimesters, nutritional deficiencies, uterine over-attendance
due to polyhydramnios or twin pregnancy. Localized infections in
external components such as the cervix, or internal intrauterine
structures can cause loss of continuity of the ovular membranes
. Twin pregnancy, defined as the gestation of two fetuses within
the uterus, is associated with a higher probability of maternalfetal
complications, a 3-fold higher risk of pre-eclampsia, preterm
delivery, premature detachment of the placenta, pyelonephritis,
postpartum hemorrhage, and premature rupture of membranes
The cause of this obstetric-gynecological condition is unknown, but it is associated with multiple pathologies causing 25-30% of premature births, which is why it is considered the main cause of prematurity and maternal mortality. Over the years, findings have been mentioned in areas of rupture that show extremely altered points of morphology: collagen II deficiency, edema with deposits of fibrinoid material, thinning of the trophoblastic and decidual layers and the development of contractions due to the presence of deposits. of prostaglandins E2 and F2, product of decidual cells and the presence of bacteria .
This prelude to a neonatal emergency brings severe consequences and complications such as: chorioamnionitis, neonatal sepsis due to colonization of microorganisms in the amniotic fluid, prematurity and even fetal death. It is characterized by having an affinity for women at the extremes of childbearing age, a prevalence in women with comorbidities and a significant history of abortions (spontaneous or induced), and high levels of morbidity and mortality due to prematurity in multiple or twin pregnancies . The relationship between twin pregnancy and PROM has not been demonstrated, however it is related to an estimated incidence of 5-8% according to the WHO. Representing the premature rupture of membranes 3% in Newborns as a result of twin pregnancies and 12% of perinatal deaths .
As the incidence of twin pregnancy increases, there are numerous complications associated with perinatal morbidity and mortality. One of the factors that could possibly affect and impact the most is obesity; the elevated body mass index typical of twin pregnant women was associated with a higher risk of premature rupture of the membranes, associated with uterine over-attendance; myometrial distention increases myometrial contractility, releases prostaglandins, and positively regulates oxytocin receptors, which are involved in the cascade of events that have been identified in the development of PROM . Through this thematic review, it was shown that premature rupture of membranes has a very significant incidence during the development of a twin pregnancy and implies a significant cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. In order to cope with this problem, it is important to know the risk factors that predispose to this disease, as well as the possible complications that can develop depending on the management. The diagnosis is fundamentally clinical, which is why it is of the utmost importance to carry out an adequate clinical history that allows the patient’s symptoms and signs to be concisely established and, depending on the case, complementary diagnostic tests can be added to help clarify the clinical picture if there are doubts [4-6].
Tuberculosis is a worldwide public health problem, especially in developing countries as Brazil. The pulmonary form is the most common presentation of the disease. TB treatment is prolonged, requiring six months, and involves various drugs to prevent microbial resistance, mainly to the rifampicin. Once the treatment started, should not be interrupted. However, as it is daily and prolonged, many patients interrupt or abandon the treatment. In addition, HIV-TB co-infection causes greater microbial resistance, and more adverse reactions, resulting from drug interactions, and higher mortality of these patients.
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