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Biomedical Journal of Scientific & Technical Research

March 13, 2020, Volume 26, 3, pp 20108-20112

Short Communication

Short Communication

C- Line Polymorphism in Human Populations

Giovanni Floris*

Author Affiliations

University of Cagliari – Natural Sciences, Via Corte d’Appello, 42 - 09124 CAGLIARI, Italy

Received: March 09, 2020 | Published: March 13, 2020

Corresponding author: Giovanni Floris, University of Cagliari – Natural Sciences, Via Corte d’Appello, 42 - 09124 CAGLIARI, Italy

DOI: 10.26717/BJSTR.2020.26.004375

Abstract

Data on C- line terminations as established by Plato [1] are reported for various populations with reference to the radial terminations/ulnar terminations ratio. The examined populations are heterogeneous and can be divided between those with a Radial type/Ulnar type ratio less than 1 and those with a ratio greater than 1.

Keywords: Dermatoglyphics; C Line; Human Populations

Short Communication

The study of dermatoglyphic, hereditary characteristics, which take on their final form in about the fourth month of intra-uterine life, is a great help towards a better knowledge of the different human populations Maxia, et al. [2]. Of the different dermatoglyphic characteristics we choose in this work the terminations of the C line .In 1970, Plato classified the terminations of the C line (the main line departing from c triradius at the base of the ring finger, Cummins, et al. [3] into four modal types:

a. Ulnar type (terminations 4, 5, 6, 7), toward the little finger and area proximal to it (hypothenar area);

b. Radial type (terminations 9, 10, 11, 12, 13), toward the thumb and thenar area:

c. Proximal type (terminations X, x, 8), the line folds on itself or is aborted;

d. Absence (O), ctriradius not present.

The Proximal type can be combined with Absence Bhattacharya [4] and the Radial type/Ulnar type ratio can be calculated to determine if this ratio is less than 1 (prevalence of ulnar terminations) or greater than 1 (prevalence of radial terminations).

Study Method

This note reports data on C line polymorphism in male populations (because more data are available) from the five continents (Asia is divided into West-Central Asia and South Asia), thus expanding the previously reported database Floris [5]. The data for Sardinians, Corsicans and Swiss (among European populations) were calculated by the author, while the other data were taken from the literature (see References), The literature data were reprocessed so as to have the raw data (and thus not all literature data were available). The data on Russian populations were taken from Heet [6] precisely via elaboration of the data reported in (Table VII). Only those regarding group 2 were omitted because the percentages do not add up. The Russian population is not included in the calculation of the global chi square.

Results

(Table 1) reports the values of C line terminations in the examined populations. A contingency table for the data on the totals of the six considered groups was calculated. The highly significant X² value highlights the heterogeneity of the populations. Examination of the Radial type/Ulnar type ratio shows that some populations have a value less than 1 (those of Africa, America, South Asia, Oceania) and others greater than 1 (those of Europe and West-Central Asia).

Conclusion

The results suggest that dermatoglyphics, once often used to characterize single human populations and then virtually abandoned in favour of other methods such as analysis of DNA and its polymorphisms Floris [7], can still be useful in characterizing populations. In particular, an intriguing fact that seems to emerge from the data is the similarity between Africa, America and Oceania through South Asia and the separation of Europe and West-Central Asia. However, it would be important to fill in some gaps, such as the absence of data (at least analyzable and/or easily understood data) of this type for China and the few data for America, in order to achieve a more complete and clarifying result (without considering the many colleagues who have not answered to my request of data): At this point, for an eventual further confirmation of what has been said, I reported in (Table 2) the the data obtained by the angular transformation in radians of the percentage frequencies of the terminations of the C-line (for methodology and bibliography, Cosseddu, et al. [8]. The result is not very different from the dermatoglyphic considerations made earlier [9-40]. I can conclude by hoping that the study of dermatoglyphics (digital, palmar and plantar) does not fall into the oblivion to which it almost seems destined today, but that it may continue to have scientific validity [41-91].

Table 1: C-line terminations (%).

Note: X²=891.47 d.f.=10 p<0.001

Table 2: Angular transformation in radians of the percentage frequencies.

Note: X²=891.47 d.f.=10 p<0.001

References

Short Communication

C- Line Polymorphism in Human Populations

Giovanni Floris*

Author Affiliations

University of Cagliari – Natural Sciences, Via Corte d’Appello, 42 - 09124 CAGLIARI, Italy

Received: March 09, 2020 | Published: March 13, 2020

Corresponding author: Robert Maurer, Department of Neurosurgery, Penn State Hershey Medical Center, United States

DOI: 10.26717/BJSTR.2020.26.004375

Abstract

Data on C- line terminations as established by Plato [1] are reported for various populations with reference to the radial terminations/ulnar terminations ratio. The examined populations are heterogeneous and can be divided between those with a Radial type/Ulnar type ratio less than 1 and those with a ratio greater than 1.

Keywords: Dermatoglyphics; C Line; Human Populations