Keywords: Postural screening; Physiotherapists
Abbreviations: N: Number; X: Arithmetic Mean; SD: Standard Deviation
The research was carried out within the campaign “Straighten up and practice!”, designed as a free counseling service in public places in several Montenegrin cities, and intended to recognize and identify postural problems in children and young people in time in Montenegro. The work included 1,181 respondents, out of which 562 (47.6%) boys and 619 (52.4%) girls. The tests were conducted in 17 cities of Montenegro (Podgorica, Bijelo Polje, Cetinje, Bar, Niksic, Ulcinj, Budva, Berane, Herceg Novi, Kolasin, Rozaje, Zabljak, Petnjica, Danilovgrad, Pljevlja, Kotor and Tivat) from 15.03.2015. until 27.09.2015. Checks for the purpose of detecting postural problems were carried out by physiotherapists (specialists of applied physiotherapy) at several points for them. Respondents came voluntarily with their parents at the invitation sent through the Ministry of Education of Montenegro, the Association “Parents” and the Directorate for Youth and Sport of Montenegro [1-10].
Materials and Methods
Respondents are children and young people between the ages of 5 and 25. The screening method records postural status data. The work included 1181 subjects, out of which 562 boys and 619 girls. Tests were conducted in 17 cities of Montenegro (Podgorica, Bijelo Polje, Cetinje, Bar, Niksic, Ulcinj, Budva, Berane, Herceg Novi, Kolasin, Rozaje, Zabljak, Petnjica, Danilovgrad, Pljevlja, Kotor and Tivat) [11-20]. Checks for the purpose of detecting postural problems were carried out by physiotherapists (specialists of applied physiotherapy) at several points for them. Respondents came voluntarily with their parents at the invitation sent through the Ministry of Education of Montenegro, the Association “Parents” and the Directorate for Youth and Sport of Montenegro. The research lasted from 15.03.2015. to 15.10.2015. The basic demographics were collected from the respondents. We used generally accepted methods of observation and measurement to determine postural problems. We observe head position, shoulder position, bladder position, Lorenc’s triangular size, folded elbow positions, pelvis inclination, Iliopsoas muscle flexibility, knee position, foot position and Adams test (preclined). We measured: body height, body weight and leg length. Evaluation sheets that were numbered and made on a scrapped paper were filled based on the examination so that one copy (original) of this list was given to parents. The data collected were analyzed using the descriptive statistics method. Statistical analyzes were performed by IBM SPSS Statistics 23. The categorical variables are represented by the number (n) and percentage (%) of the observations, and the continuous variable by the arithmetic mean (x) and the standard deviation (SD) or the median with quartile ranges, depending on the normality of the data distribution.
Distribution regularity was evaluated based on frequency histogram and calculated using the Shapiro-Wilk test. For the analysis of the categorical screening variables, the variable age was transformed and recoded into categories with approximately the same distribution of the number of respondents by category. Screening results were analyzed using descriptive statistics; a hisquare ( x2 ) test was used to compare the groups. The difference between the groups was considered significant if p <0.05 [21-29].
The results of the study showed that: in 25.5% of respondents, the head is in the protege; in 29.5% of subjects with lower right shoulder; in 24.7% of the subjects lowered left shoulder; in 41.6% of shoulders in the protege; in 36.2% of respondents there is a winginess of both blades; in 54.9% of subjects, the asymmetric position of the lower angle of the blades is present; in 70.5% of respondents, the asymmetric position of Lorenz’s triangles is present; in 18.8% of subjects, the front pelvis is present; in 1.1% of the respondents the asymmetry of the SIAS position is present; in 52.6% of respondents there is a contract of both M. Iliopsoas; in 13.2% of respondents, one of the knee deformities is present; in 72.7% of the subjects there are lowered vaults of both feet; in 22.0% of subjects, valgus is present in both Achilles tendons; in 3.1% of subjects, there is a bilateral halux valgus; 1.6% of respondents had a leg difference of 1 cm; Of the total of 206 respondents (17.4%) who have registered gestures, the same is corrected in 122 respondents (59.22%), ie it is not corrected at 84 (40.78%). In 82.6% of subjects, no hump was recorded.
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