Background and Aims: Since the management are the process of using organizational resources to accomplish organizational goals, through functions of planning, organizing, leading and controlling, this study was conducted with the aim of checking Head nurses ‘ awareness of management principles in the educational hospitals.
Methods: this research is a cross - sectional (descriptive – analytical) study. In this study, Head nurses’ awareness from Principles of Management was studied in four cases (planning, organizing, guidance and leadership, control and supervision). The population of this study included all head nurses working in educational hospitals (130 people). Required information from the total population (census) was collected. The data collection tool was a researcher-made questionnaire containing demographic characteristics and awareness. Data analysis was performed using SPSS19 software. Descriptive statistics methods including mean and standard deviation were used to determine the level of awareness. Also, T-test and ANOVA and nonparametric equivalence tests were used to compare the gender and education subgroups.
Results: Analysis of the results of one-way ANOVA showed that there was a significant relationship between the level of respondent’s awareness and the variables such as head nursing experience, the number of nursing staff and nursing staffing status.
Conclusion: The findings of this study can increase the efficiency of nursing staff, reducing the cost of treatment for health customers and related therapeutic Institutions, Finally, improving Health level of the community under the wise leadership.
Keywords:Management principles; Awareness; Head nurse
The management of organizations is essential and in today’s life and world, the need for leadership is felt more and more . In this regard, in addressing the complex challenges of health careers, effective nursing leadership  and the existence of managers with flexible and adaptive leadership is essential . Obviously, the emergence of organizations and their development is the result of management, but the organization and management are necessary and the necessity of each other. Duberin believes management to be the process of utilizing organizational resources to fulfill organizational goals through planning, organizing, managing and directing, controlling, and monitoring. Planning is one of the main elements of the organization and it is impossible to continue the organization’s life and achieve the desired results without a specific program. In other words, planning is an activity related to deciding on the goals and objectives of the organization, tools (programs), policies and outcomes . In this regard, management is the process of ensuring the achievement of the organization to the benefits of implementing the appropriate organizational strategy planning, so according to this definition, the proper planning is defined according to the requirements of that organization at a specified time .
Organizing is a necessary step that with the help of those general goals and the main management of the organization in the form of more detailed objectives and tasks, and broken units and their realization can be achieved . Also, for having an efficient organization, we need to organize periodic, not daily the process consists of three steps: Tasks and activities, classification of activities into organizational posts, establishing communication between posts to achieve a common goal . Leadership and guidance mean influencing others to do work, maintaining morale, modeling the culture of participation and managing communications and conflict . Management development, especially in the first line of supervision, should be high priority by senior leaders . Managers ask “how” and “what time,” While the leaders put forward “what” and “why” at the same time the initiative and present the main challenges in a given situation . Awareness of the leadership style of managers is important because leaders play a vital role in group effectiveness and directing their activities. Therefore, it is essential that everyone appropriately assigned to each task after identification, particularly in health centers due to their sensitive tasks, they should take full advantage of their facilities to produce a product called “Health Promotion” .
In this regard, Sorenson et al. suggest that, according to the concept of nursing leadership, there is a potential factor for improving the links between nursing leadership, supervision and patient health . Also, in Scandinavia, the term “leadership in health promotion” is common and refers to successful organizational theories about the need for a Popular and supportive leadership style, in addition, it refers to the general Viewpoint of health [11,12]. The control is the activity that Compared must be with the existents, desires with creatures and predictions with Performances and provides a clear picture of the difference or similarity for the modification and development of the operation . In this regard, the goal of the existential philosophy of monitoring and control, Modification and improvement, and if this feature is not available in the control system, the system will not last long. The most important issue that makes controlling necessary is that the predictions and operational programs in the organization are always accompanied by a percentage of errors, which is the only remedy for eliminating these errors and correcting control operations . On the other hand, one of the first methods to ensure full implementation of activities in organizations is proper monitoring of employee performance .
Since the management and administration of human affairs is a difficult task and complicated. The importance of managing a group of so-called healthy people in relation to other humans namely the patient and providing care and therapeutic services with good quality to them, the caused many management experts have put their management in front of this fundamental question, Whether a nursing director has been able to recognize the needs of humans, one in the role of a health care provider, and another in the role of the recipient of the same service. Has he (she) been able to apply all his skills according to the psychological and physical requirements of the two groups in accordance with the knowledge and art of management? Awareness of management dominates the nursing unit to its profession and makes that the profession will be protected from robbery and the interference of non-professionals. Researchers believe; Position of head nurses in implementing nursing care is possible with the provision of such a responsibility when its services are provided under proper discipline and management .
Research shows that, firstly, nursing managers can use management skills in Improving the quality of care, professional development, empowerment of staff and support for nurses is effective. Secondly, many nursing managers do not manage this management completely [16,17]. Cohen reports that, unfortunately, nursing managers have not been empowered to provide leadership and support behaviors needed by nurses . On the other hand, nurses have considered Increasing the productivity of the nursing team depends on the managers’ knowledge and awareness of management science. therefore, it is necessary to organize management training courses for all nursing managers, including head nurses . Al-Shaibi believes that the wrong choice of leadership style leads to ineffective leadership in the organization, as well as inadequate managerial information and knowledge constitutes a barrier to leadership .
Wilson’s study also showed that nursing managers’ improvement programs can in addition to improving the quality of work life, it would create a sense of commitment toward the organization in nurses and, of course, increase their trust in nursing management . Therefore, given the many issues in the nursing management system the researcher decided to examine the level of awareness of head nurses about the principles of management in educational hospitals. Because the results of such studies can be a guide for nursing administrators and providers of these services. Also, the findings of this research can cause increase the efficiency of nursing personnel, reduce the cost of treatment for health clients and related therapeutic institutions and finally, it will enhance the health of the community under the wise leadership.
This research is a cross - sectional (descriptive – analytical) study. In this study, Head nurses’ awareness from Principles of Management was studied in four cases (planning, organizing, guidance and leadership, control and supervision). The population of this study (2019) included all head nurses working in educational hospitals (130 people). Required information from the total population (census) was collected. The data collection tool was a researcher-made questionnaire includes 20 questions about demographic characteristics (age, sex, marital status, degree, nursing experience, nursing staffing record, number of supervised employees, whether you have seen the principles of specific training management, employment status) and investigate the level of awareness. The data were collected by obtaining permission from the relevant organization with the presence of a researcher at educational hospitals affiliated to Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences in Ahvaz (along with necessary training on how to complete the questionnaire).
In this study, the research samples were determined according to their willingness to participate and getting written and oral consent in the study. In addition, participants in the research were assured that the information was completely confidential. The researcher referred to the research environment when the samples had more opportunity to fill in the questionnaire during shifting work. To confirm the content validity, the questionnaires were submitted to 10 professors specializing in this field and their views were applied to the questionnaire. Also, to confirm the reliability of the questionnaire, ten nursing managers who were randomly selected filled out questionnaires. Scoring the answer is as follows. That score zero is based on the wrong answer and score 1 is assigned to the correct answer. The minimum score for nurses’ awareness from the principles of management was zero and its maximum was 11. The level of awareness was measured as a good degree with a score of 9-11, a medium degree with a score of 5-9 and a weak degree with a score of less than 5.
Data analysis was performed using SPSS19 software. Descriptive statistics methods including mean and standard deviation were used to determine the level of awareness. Also, Independent T-test, ANOVA, or nonparametric equivalence tests were used to compare this amount in the subgroups of gender and education.
The results of this study showed that the mean age of participants in the study was 40.98 ± 4.55. Also 83.8 were women, 79.2% were married. The majority in terms of education was a bachelor’s degree (94.6%). In terms of nursing experience (58.5%), they had less than 10 years of work experience. Also, 55.4% of the head nurses had fewer than 16 employees under their supervision. (Figure1) Regarding the question “ Have you seen any special training on the principles of management, 53.8% stated that they had managed management workshops? 72.7% formalized-definitive and 44.6% had their information on the principles of management through inservice education. Other characteristics of the participants in the study are presented in (Table 1). In the analysis of two variables, the results of one-way ANOVA showed that there was a significant relationship between the level of awareness of the respondents and the variables of head nursing experience, the number of staff under super vision and the employment status of nurses (p <0.05) (Table 2).
The aim of this study was to determine the level of head nurse’s awareness about the principles of management in southwestern educational hospitals of Iran. According to the results of this study, the majority of nurses’ awareness of the principles of management (planning, organization, control and leadership) was moderate, which is consistent with the results of study by Baqaee et al. . Perhaps one of the reasons for the moderate level of nurses’ awareness of the principles of management in comparison with the degree of desirability is that head nurses (front-line managers in the nursing management system) spend more time providing good management performance than updating management information. In the study of Baqaee, most head nurses also had good managerial performance . The results of this study showed that there was a significant relationship between the level of knowledge of the respondents with the variables of work experience in head nursing,, the number of supervised nurses and the head nurses’ employment status, while based on the results of the research, Rohini et al, Between managerial history and skills their management is not related . Perhaps the reasons for this difference are the differences in the personality characteristics of individuals in the administration of affairs, as well as the implementation of in-service education courses for employees, regardless of history.
However, having a managerial record for nursing managers is imperative to manage their management tasks from planning to control. However, in the study of Kohansal and colleagues, there was a significant correlation between nursing and head nursing work . It should be acknowledged that this consistency with the results of this study reflects the fact that the experiences and resources of the work play a significant role in increasing the level of awareness associated with the principles of management and its application. The findings of this study showed that head nurses’ awareness with the number of supervised employees was statistically significant. Undoubtedly, the appointment of the nursing staff by the head nurses of each ward should be considered Due to having the necessary awareness in performing human resources supply calculations and related standards. Of course, it should be acknowledged that the appropriateness of the number of nursing staff, as compared to the number of patients in the department, has a profound impact on the provision of appropriate Managerial decisions and the resulting actions.
As well as, if the head nurses pay attention to the above point, will be able to correctly execute each of the Managerial tasks, in particular monitoring the actions of the nursing staff. In this regard, Severinsen et al. Also stated that the importance of monitoring is undeniable, so that it is the center for nursing leadership and management. In order to meet this need, clinical surveillance should be continuously provided as part of their regular work in order to ensure the quality of care. As a result, this standard practice is created among eligible employees. The development of clinical surveillance is a task for managers, which should improve nurses’ practical environment by focusing on appropriate strategies . On the other hand, the emphasis of the health system on the implementation of this important in all care units will have the satisfaction of health customers (clients, patients and families).
Considering the significant relationship between head nurses’ awareness of their management principles and their employment status in this study, it may be due to the fact that the type of employment status (impermanent, contract, and permanent) plays a significant role in this regard. Dependency and affiliation to the relevant organization cause the staff to seek to increase their awareness of managerial tasks, Undoubtedly nursing managers also no Exceptional From this rule. On the other hand, considering the competencies and merits of nursing managers in order to improve the level of employment and pay attention to this issue will make Updating the managerial scientific and practical information of the respective managers, as well as improving the quality of nursing care and ultimately the satisfaction of healthcare clients. The results of the study indicate that most head nurses have completed managerial workshops and obtained their information on the principles of management through in-service education. But the results of the study show that head nurses did not participate did not participate in management training courses .
Perhaps one of the reasons for the difference is that nowadays, head nurses are required to upgrade their scientific and practical skills in the field of management, manage their management workshops and new management courses. Perhaps one of the reasons for the difference is that nowadays, head nurses need to spend their management training workshops and modern management courses in order to improve their scientific and practical skills in the field of management. In this regard, the researchers also aimed to improve management Recommends Strategies such as monitoring leadership behaviors and feedback from researchers to clinical nurses, the participation of all levels of managerial in upgrading programs and the use of modern teaching methods . It should be noted that head nurse or clinical cares manager should have technical and clinical skills. Also, it is fully aware of laws, economics, employee relations, counseling, and communication practices. Leadership in head nursing is fully practical and the use of theoretical knowledge in daily activities is mandatory .
Researchers also point out in relation to the critical role of leadership; Hospital managers need to provide the necessary opportunities for nurse managers to leadership education . On the other hand, in connection with this important topic of managerial, researchers point out that nursing leaders use leadership styles in an inappropriate way, thus creating a unique system and model for all health care institutions Facilitates assessing competencies and continuous monitoring of work outcomes leaders  From the limitations of this research, mental health issues of nurses can be pointed out when filling in questionnaires. This situation was beyond the control of the researcher with all the plans made to restrict it. Information obtained by the subjects under study from other sources of information (media, individuals, and management specialist) is likely to affect the results of the research and in this case also the opinions of the subjects under study will be effective upon the completion of the questionnaire, which is beyond the control of the researcher. It is suggested that research be conducted in this regard for other nursing managers in educational hospitals in order to compare the results with the findings of this study.
Since the awareness of managers from the management principles is an important factor in the efficiency of nursing services, the results obtained from this research can be used for general nurses, especially nursing and head nurses. Also, the findings can provide a clear picture of the application of management principles to increase the quality of care in the minds of nurses and their managers, so that the clients reach to the highest level of health by getting Quantitative and qualitative care from nurses. And on the other hand, this health effect reduces the cost of treatment for health clients and related institutions. Therefore, according to the results of the study, in-service education can be considered periodically and in order to increase the managers’ awareness of the principles of management in order to improve the quality of health services. Also, the results of this research can be used for students, faculty members and educators, especially nursing education planners, to further enhance and enrich the contents of educational management courses, both theoretical and practical.
Conflict of Interest
The author states that there are no conflicts of interest in this study.
Hereby, I am grateful to the deputy chairman of the research center of Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences for the material and spiritual support of the project, IR.AJUMS. REC.1394.299/ SDH-9411. Meanwhile, thanks to all head nurses that without this cooperation, the continuation of this activity was not possible.
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