*Corresponding author:Yang Gu, Oral Pathologist, and Director of Oral Pathology Clinic, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, Dalhousie University, 5123 room, 5981 University Avenue, Halifax, NS, Canada
Received: March 19, 2018; Published: April 03, 2018
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Aims: The paper provided an effective way of analyzing orofacial pain cases based on new findings in central and peripheral sensitization.
Methods: The non-systematic review was undertaken by searching English literature in the PubMed by pertinent keywords. Case reports and publications with weak levels of evidence were excluded.
Results: Central and peripheral sensitizations affect the pain perception mainly in the way of changing levels of neurotransmitters, the sensitivity of neurotransmitter receptors, neurogenic inflammation, and malnutrition.
Discussion: Understanding the mechanism deeply in the view of neurophysiology and molecular biology will be helpful for clinicians to interpret orofacial pain symptoms efficiently and find treatment plans appropriately. A comprehensive table was provided.
Keywords: Neurotransmitter; Neurotransmitter Receptor; Neuron; Central Sensitization; Peripheral Sensitization; Orofacial Pain
Abbreviations: SNC: Sensory Nucleus Complex; WDR: Wide Dynamic Range; VPM: Ventral Postero-Medial; CGRP: Calcitonin Gene-Related Protein; GPCRs: G-Protein Coupling Receptors; VGICs: Voltage-Gated Ion Channels; GABA: Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid; RF: Reticular Formation; NE: Nor-Adrenaline; BD: Bradykinin; CCK: Neuropeptide Chole-Cysto-kinin; NO: Nitric Oxide