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ISSN: 2574 -1241

Research ArticleOpen Access

Regional Groundwater Hardness and Silicon, Cropland Fertility and CHD in Finland

Volume 1 - Issue 7

Timo Töysä*

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    • Specialty General Practice, Rehabilitation Hospital Vetrea, Finland

    *Corresponding author: Timo Töysä, Specialty General Practice, Rehabilitation Hospital Vetrea, Finland, Pohjolankatu 15, FI-74100 Iisalmi; Email:

Received: December 18, 2017;   Published: January 03, 2018

DOI: 10.26717/BJSTR.2018.01.000623

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Abstract: The status of silicon (Si) in agriculture, veterinary and human medicine is not clear. This survey is based on old data, but groundwater (from springs and dugwells) data have been newly classified by 21 Rural Centers (RC). RC CHD has been estimated by provincial data. The aim of this paper is to clarify associations between CHD mortality, groundwater (GW) hardness (Ca+Mg),, cropland (soil) (Ca+Mg) - a measure of soil fertility - and, pH and temperature (Temp) with regional parameters [latitude (Lat), longitude (Long)]. Regressions are given separately for the whole Finland (“21.RC”) and continental Finland (“20.RC”), i.e. without Åland - the only RC with pH.soil > 6.2. Directions of trend lines of variables have been approximated.

Results: CHD regressions by, by (Ca+Mg).gw and by (combined) [Lat; Long], (Ca+Mg).gw regressions by (Ca+Mg).soil and by [Lat; Long] and, regressions by (Ca+Mg).gw, by [Lat; Long], by [Temp;(Ca+Mg).soil] and by [Temp;pH.soil] have been computed. In RC.20 all associations were significant (p < 0.018). In RC.21 all regressions without were stronger than in RC.20, but by including associations were weaker with one exception: [Temp; pH.soil] explained stronger than in RC.20 (by 68 %). The approximated CHD trend line angle was smaller than the respective angles of and (Ca+Mg).

Conclusion: In RC.20, where soil pH was below 6.2, and (Ca+Mg).gw were highly positively inter-correlated and soil fertility could be predicted by regional In RC.20 regression by explained better CHD than by (Ca+Mg).gw. Supposedly the health effects of Si could be mediated directly through (soluble) Si in soil and via factors associated with (Ca+Mg). In regional gw analyses the effect of (mother earth) pH needs attention.

Abstract| Introduction| Materials and Methods| Results| Discussion| Conclusion| Acknowledgement| References|