*Corresponding author:Sukanta Mondal, ICAR-NIANZP, Bangalore, India
Received: September 23, 2017 Published: October 10, 2017
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Reproductive performance is one of the important factors for determining the economics of livestock production. Reproduction is a complex luxurious process affected by environmental factors and involves a series of physiological processes and supported by endocrine system through release of various hormones A sound knowledge of reproductive functioning in terms of interplay of hypothalamic, gonadotropic and gonadal hormones, with synergistic and antagonistic influences from other hormones and factors involved in the regulation of various reproductive stages, accurate oestrus detection, timely pregnancy diagnosis and early detection of non-conceived stock can be expected to lead to an improvement of the reproductive efficiency. The different phases of reproductive cycle and pregnancy are regulated by intricate sequential events and interactions between hypothalamic releasing hormones, hormones secreted from the pituitary and sex steroids secreted by the ovary. Lack of integration or synchronization or endocrine imbalances at any phase of the sequence may result in reproductive failure. This paper focuses on use of various hormones for detection of estrus and early pregnancy in livestock.